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Ganoderma Lucidum

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Ganoderma Lucidum

English

Lucid Ganoderma

Alias
Ganoderma lucidum, red-zhi, wood fungus, fungus Ganoderma lucidum, years mushroom, Ganoderma grass
Source
Section fungus Ganoderma lucidum for the porous grate Ganoderma Iucidum (Leyss.ex Fr.) Karst. Fruiting bodies of
Plant morphology
Cap suberin, kidney-shaped, reddish brown, purpurin or dark purple, with lacquer-like luster, there are circular ribs and radial wrinkles, size and shape vary greatly, large individual cap for the 20 × 10cm, thickness about 2cm, usually an individual for the 4 × 3cm, thickness 0.5 ~ 1cm, following numerous small holes, pipe mouth was white or light brown, each containing 4 mm 5, pipe mouth circular, inner wall of hymenium, spores burden arising from the top. Stipe lateral, few side-sheng, longer than cap diameter, purple-brown to black, there are paint-like gloss, hard. Spores oval, 8 ~ 11 × 7cm, wall layers, wall brown, surface with small warts, outer wall colorless and transparent.
Summer and autumn was born more than broad-leaved trees of the wood piles next to the forest, or wood, timber and fallen trees, sometimes born in conifers, there are cultivated. Produced in Anhui, Jiangxi, Fujian, Guangdong and Guangxi.
Collect and process
Can be taken throughout the year, dried.
Characters
Morphological See “Plant Morphology.” Gas special, slightly bitter taste
Chemical Composition
Main-containing amino acids, peptides, proteins, fungal lysozyme (fungal lysozyme), as well as sugars (reducing sugars and polysaccharides), ergosterol, triterpenes, coumarin glycoside, volatile oil, stearic acid, benzoic acid, alkaloids, vitamin B2 and C, etc.; spores also contain mannitol, trehalose (trehalose), etc.
Of taste
Warm in nature, unleavened
Indication
Strong tonic. For the brain, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, kidney

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Pumpkin Seed – Cucurbita moschata Duch

Pumpkin Seed – Cucurbita moschata Duch

Pumpkin is a gourd-like squash of the genus Cucurbita and the family Cucurbitaceae (which also includes gourds). In the United States and Canada it is a common name of or can refer to cultivars of any one of the species Cucurbita pepo, Cucurbita mixta, Cucurbita maxima, and Cucurbita moschata. They are typically orange or yellow and have many creases running from the stem to the bottom. They have a thick shell on the outside, with seeds and pulp on the inside.

In British and Australian English, pumpkin generally refers to what North Americans call winter squash, but would include the above species. This article is based on the North American definition.

Pumpkin seed oil (Kernöl or Kürbiskernöl in German, bučno olje in Slovenian, bučino ulje or bundevino ulje in Serbian and Croatian, and tökmag-olaj in Hungarian), a culinary specialty of south eastern Austria (Styria), eastern Slovenia (Styria and Prekmurje), north western Croatia (esp. Međimurje), adjacent regions of Hungary, is a European Union Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) product.

Today the oil is an important export commodity of Austrian and Slovenian parts of Styria. It is made by pressing roasted, hulled pumpkin seeds (pepitas), from a local variety of pumpkin, the “Styrian oil pumpkin” (Cucurbita pepo var. styriaca, also known as var. oleifera). It has been produced and used in Styria’s southern parts at least since the 18th century. The earliest confirmed record of oil pumpkin seeds in Styria (from the estate of a farmer in Gleinstätten) dates to February 18, 1697.

The viscous oil is light to very dark green to dark red in colour depending on the thickness of the observed sample. The oil appears green in thin layer and red in thick layer. Such optical phenomenon is called dichromatism. Pumpkin oil is one of the substances with strongest dichromatism. Its Kreft’s dichromaticity index is -44. Used together with yoghurt, the colour turns to bright green and is sometimes referred to as “green-gold”.

Medicinal uses

Claims, based on local folk medicine, suggesting usefulness of the oil in the prevention and treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia may be backed by some studies showing clinically proven efficacy (particularly along with Serenoa repens, saw palmetto, and Pygeum africanum) according to the criteria of evidence-based medicine. [citation needed]

Pumpkin seed oil is most commonly used to treat irritable bowel syndrome. [citation needed] Small studies have also shown that pumpkin seeds, which contain amino acids, steroidal compounds, and omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, may lower the risk of certain types of kidney stones and improve symptoms associated with enlarged prostates Additionally, pumpkin seeds reportedly contain significant amounts of tryptophan and lysine. Some studies have also found pumpkin seeds to prevent arteriosclerosis and regulate cholesterol levels. [citation needed]

Pumpkin seed oil, commonly prescribed in German folk medicine, remedies parasitic infestations of the intestinal tract such as tapeworms.

The Benefits of Pumpkin Seed

Pumpkin seeds are one of nature’s almost perfect foods. They are a natural source of beneficial constituents such as carbohydrates, amino acids and unsaturated fatty acids. They contain most of the B vitamins, along with C, D, E, and K. They also have the minerals calcium, potassium, and phosphorous. Pumpkin seeds have mainly been used to treat prostate and bladder problems, but they have also been known to help with depression and learning disabilities.

Native American tribes were among the first people to notice the beneficial aspects of pumpkin seeds. They referred to them as cucurbita and used them to treat kidney problems and to eliminate parasites from the intestines.

Because pumpkin seeds turned up so frequently in folk medicines, scientists began to conduct research on the oil extracted from them. One study showed pumpkin seed oil kept hormones from inflicting damage on the cells of the prostate, which helps to reduce cancer development. Another study revealed that the seeds contain a significant amount of L-tryptophan, which is beneficial in battling depression (although it is believed the seeds don’t have enough to treat major depression, they can be used as a preventive measure). Other studies showed pumpkin seeds can improve bladder and urethra function. And they are thought to help stop the formation of kidney stones, even though the ingredient responsible is unknown. Pumpkin seeds have also been used to treat learning disorders and are generally recommended in some countries as a ‘brain food.’ Other studies have shown they prevent hardening of the arteries and help regulate cholesterol levels.

Using pumpkin seeds in cooking is popular in many cultures. Adding roasted pumpkin seeds to soups and salads provides a nutty flavor; and pumpkin seed oil can be used as a salad dressing when combined with products like honey and olive oil. Roasted pumpkin seeds are of course commonly eaten as snacks, but be aware that while roasting brings out their full flavor, the heat also destroys their natural fatty acids. Thus they are most nutritious when eaten raw. Also make sure to refrigerate pumpkin seeds so the oil does not turn rancid.

When buying pumpkin seed oil it is important to check that the label doesn’t list too much sunflower seed oil. Some manufacturers add a lot of sunflower oil to reduce costs since extracting oil from pumpkin seeds is a tedious and complicated process.

A common folk remedy in Germany uses pumpkin seed oil to treat tapeworms, although some say the act is somewhat risky. A person with tapeworms is given approximately ten ounces of ground pumpkin seeds combined with milk and honey. Two hours later, castor oil is given and the tapeworms are eliminated. Studies in China have shown that pumpkin seeds are beneficial to people with a rare parasitic disease received from snails called schistosomiasis. So far the disease has only been found in Africa and Asia.

Pumpkin seeds have been known to cause upset stomach in some people, but they do not interact with other medications as far as anyone knows.

Sources : Pumkin Seed is the dried seed of Cucurbita moschata Duch. the drug is collected in summer and autumn, remove from tissues, washed clean, and dried in hte sun.

Action: to kill parasites.

Indications: Taeniasis, ascarids, schistosomiasis, filariasis.

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Let’s recognize culinary herbs and usability

Let’s recognize culinary herbs and usability

The uniqueness of taste and smell make it often used in cooking various nations. He also has various properties in perubatan and beauty, and used as a durable material also semulajadi and kraftangan materials.

That is the privilege of spices and herbs hundred. In fact, our country (especially Malacca) has become the center of the spice trade in this foreign country when the first one.

Where a single herbs, spices which one?

Herbs usually come than the leaves, when the herb-hundred came than grains, fruits, bark or roots. Sometimes the herbs and spices can also come than the same subject. Example coriander. Fresh coriander leaves are herbs used in cooking tomyam, coriander powder than when the seeds are the main ingredient in curry spices.

Fresh or dried? : While he kept the right, both herbaceous and fresh or dried herbs contain a variety of properties including phytochemicals.

Keeping qualities : It is important to save hundred herbs and spices in the right way to perpetuate properties and taste. Dried herbs may be wrapped in paper towel and add to the former or plastic Beg before inserted into the chest ais. You also get to keep the spice in the former closed airtight cooler outside the box, but make sure the place is dark and dim. He may hold that six months. Do not put it on the edge of the kitchen will influence the heat kerana qualities and taste.

If you want to buy spices powder, do not buy in a quantity that many will quickly kerana berkurangan freshness. For example, black pepper powder, bought in a small quantity and the proportion buying black pepper if you want to dikisar not save them in a long time.

What made it so valuable?
Studies have found that herbs and spices contain many hundreds of anti-oxidants, which help the human body against free radicals that can cause illness. He also contain phytochemicals such as curcumin (the turmeric), capsaicin (chilli), allicin (garlic) and gingerol (ginger), and also various vitamins, including vitamin C.

Curry spices are said to be able to make your minda youth. He is also good to prevent this kanser and also perhaps one of the contributors to the lack of valid kanser disease among the Indian community in India.

He also helped to add other food functions if added to the dish in a phenomenon called ‘synergy of food’. “For this, more serviceable to enjoy the real benefits of cooking rather than taking supplements or food supplements.

Aside from the food, spices and herbs were also used in beauty treatments and Kesihatan. Between commonly used is lemon grass, pandan, and Black Seed manjakani used in treatments such as bathing herbs for example. He is not sahaja body perfume, instead saying the toxic able to remove the body.

The nature of anti-mikrobnya according semulajadi and preservatives used widely used cool boxes dikala absence in ancient times. Hundred and spices like turmeric herbs, ginger, cinnamon, are also widely used in traditional perubatan various nations. Involving Pengubatan spirits joined using herbs and spices like black pepper and garlic that is read with particular readings.

In Food : Between function-hundred and spices in cooking herbs are added perisa and kelazatan without adding more calories, fat, sugar, sodium or salt in cooking. The aroma is not of our making sahaja enjoy keenakannya impatient, in fact he also remove the unpleasant smell like the smell of cooking meat Hamis, and also hanyir fish. Spice hundred and herbs in cooking dishes are also made more visible menyelerakan with color and shape of various.

To perpetuate herbaceous flavor and color, put it at the end of cooking. But if you want to taste the ‘entry’ into the cooking, cooking tambahkannya early. You also may mangle herbs or tapped for a stronger taste.
Most spices like curry or soup spices, savory pan-fried so crisp before adding water or coconut milk does not seem so rempahnya ‘raw’.

10 Ways to Enjoy the Herb and Spice in Food
1. You may make one of the curry spice ingredients perapan chicken or fish stir-fried or baked saffron substitute.
2. Dessert like flan or bread pudding may diperisakan with cinnamon bark powder or nutmeg powder.
3. Add fresh herbs such as kesum leaf, lemongrass and chili hirisan into your kerabu or salad.
4. Add herbs such as pudina leaves into your tea is still warm or your favorite fruit juice.
5. Boiled hirisan or lemongrass or ginger pieces with water. Sejukkan and add a little sweetener like honey or sugar. He is refreshing.
6. Brush butter mixed with crushed garlic and chopped herbs to parsli and grilled bread for garlic bread lazat.
7. Saute spices with chilli four companions who used to spicy dishes spicy sour.
8. Mayang subtle lime leaves and lemon over fish hiaskannya cook your favorite chili.
9. Add oregano herbs into your pasta sauce.
10. Enter nutmeg or cloves with epal stew and eat with plates of milk or make it the core of a burned pastry.

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Common Fenugreek Seed

Common Fenugreek Seed

Fenugreek Trigonella foenum-graecum) is a plant in the family Fabaceae. Fenugreek is used both as a herb (the leaves) and as a spice (the seed, often called methi in Urdu/Hindi/Nepali).

The leaves and sprouts are also eaten as vegetables. The plant is cultivated worldwide as a semi-arid crop and is a common ingredient in many curries.

Product Name: Common Fenugreek Seed P.E.
Plant Origin: Trigonella foenum-graecum
Fenugreek seeds are used as a traditional spice in Asia and Europe. They have a slight maple taste and are often used in production of imitation maple flavorings.

Fenugreek seeds contain a high proportion (40%) of a soluble fiber known as mucilage. This fiber forms a gelatinous structure (similar to guar gum) which may have effects on slowing the digestion and absorption of food from the intestine.

Because fenugreek seeds contain estrogen-like saponins, blood levels of total cholesterol, LDL and triglycerides can be reduced (with no change in HDL) – providing an important heart benefit.

Action:
1) A few studies have shown a beneficial effect of fenugreek in reducing blood glucose levels and improving glucose tolerance in patients with diabetes.
2) In terms of weight control, the soluble fiber in fenugreek seeds can reduce dietary fat absorption by binding to fatty acids as well as create a sensation of “fullness” and reduced appetite.

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Watermelon

Watermelon

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Scientific Name: Citrullus Vulgaris

Biological Background: The fruit of an annual vine belonging to the squash and melon family. Watermelon originated in Africa and has been cultivated since ancient times in the Mediterranean region, Egypt and India.

Nutritional Information: One slice of watermelon (480 g) contains 152 calories, 3 g protein, 34.6 g carbohydrates, 2.4 g fiber, 560 mg potassium, 176 mg vitamin A (RE), 47 mg vitamin C, 0.3 mg thiamin, 0.1 mg riboflavin, and 0.96 mg niacin.

History

Watermelon is thought to have originated in southern Africa, where it is found growing wild, because it reaches maximum genetic diversity resulting in sweet, bland and bitter forms there. Alphonse de Candolle, in 1882, already considered the evidence sufficient to prove that watermelon was indigenous to tropical Africa. Though Citrullus colocynthis is often considered to be a wild ancestor of watermelon, and is now found native in north and west Africa, Fenny Dane and Jiarong Liu, suggest on the basis of chloroplast DNA investigations, that the cultivated and wild watermelon appear to have diverged independently from a common ancestor, possibly C. ecirrhosus from Namibia.

It is not known when the plant was first cultivated, but Zohary and Hopf note evidence of its cultivation in the Nile Valley from at least as early as the second millennium BC. Although watermelon is not depicted in any Egyptian hieroglyphic text nor does any ancient writer mention it, finds of the characteristically large seed are reported in Twelfth dynasty sites; numerous watermelon seeds were recovered from the tomb of Pharaoh Tutankhamun.

By the 10th century AD, watermelons were being cultivated in China, which is today the world’s single largest watermelon producer. By the 13th century, Moorish invaders had introduced the fruit to Europe; and, according to John Mariani’s The Dictionary of American Food and Drink, “watermelon” made its first appearance in an English dictionary in 1615.

In Vietnam, legend holds that watermelon was discovered in Vietnam long before it reached China, in the era of the Hùng Kings. According to legend, watermelon was discovered by Prince Mai An Tiêm, an adopted son of the 11th Hùng King. When he was exiled unjustly to an island, he was told that if he could survive for six months, he would be allowed to return. When he prayed for guidance, a bird flew past and dropped a seed. He cultivated the seed and called its fruit “dưa tây” or western melon, because the birds who ate it flew from the west. When the Chinese took over Vietnam in about 110 BC, they called the melons “dưa hảo” (good melon) or “dưa hấu”, “dưa Tây”, “dưa hảo”, “dưa hấu”—all words for “watermelon”. An Tiêm’s island is now a peninsula in the suburban district of Nga

Nutrition

Watermelon contains about 6% sugar and 92% water by weight. As with many other fruits, it is a source of vitamin C.

Notable is the inner rind or the watermelon which is usually a light green or white color. This area is edible and contains many hidden nutrients that most people avoid eating due to its void taste.

The amino acid citrulline was first extracted from watermelon and analysed. Watermelons contain a significant amount of citrulline and after consumption of several kg an elevated concentration is measured in the blood plasma; this could be mistaken for citrullinaemia or other urea cycle disorder.

Watermelon rinds are also edible, and sometimes used as a vegetable. In China, they are stir-fried, stewed, or more often pickled. When stir-fried, the de-skinned and de-fruited rind is cooked with olive oil, garlic, chili peppers, scallions, sugar and rum. Pickled watermelon rind is also commonly consumed in the Southern US, Russia, Ukraine, Romania and Bulgaria.[citation needed] In the Balkans, especially Serbia, watermelon slatko is also popular. Watermelon juice can also be made into wine.

Watermelon is also mildly diuretic.

Watermelons contain large amounts of beta carotene.

Watermelon with red flesh is a significant source of lycopene.

A traditional food plant in Africa, this fruit has potential to improve nutrition, boost food security, foster rural development and support sustainable landcare.

Varieties

  • Carolina Cross: This variety of watermelon produced the current world record watermelon weighing 262 pounds (119 kg). It has green skin, red flesh and commonly produces fruit between 65 and 150 pounds (29 and 68 kg). It takes about 90 days from planting to harvest.
  • Yellow Crimson Watermelon: variety of watermelon that has a yellow colored flesh. This particular type of watermelon has been described as “sweeter” and more “honey” flavored than the more popular red flesh watermelon.
  • Orangeglo: This variety has a very sweet orange pulp, and is a large oblong fruit weighing 9–14 kg (20-30 pounds). It has a light green rind with jagged dark green stripes. It takes about 90–100 days from planting to harvest.
  • The Moon and Stars variety of watermelon has been around since 1926. The rind is purple/black and has many small yellow circles (stars) and one or two large yellow circles (moon). The melon weighs 9–23 kg (20-50 pounds).The flesh is pink or red and has brown seeds. The foliage is also spotted. The time from planting to harvest is about 90 days.
  • Cream of Saskatchewan: This variety consists of small round fruits, around 25 cm (10 inches) in diameter. It has a quite thin, light green with dark green striped rind, with sweet white flesh and black seeds. It can grow well in cool climates. It was originally brought to Saskatchewan, Canada by Russian immigrants. These melons take 80–85 days from planting to harvest.
  • Melitopolski: This variety has small round fruits roughly 28–30 cm (11-12 inches) in diameter. It is an early ripening variety that originated from the Volga River region of Russia, an area known for cultivation of watermelons. The Melitopolski watermelons are seen piled high by vendors in Moscow in summer. This variety takes around 95 days from planting to harvest.
  • Densuke Watermelon: This variety has round fruit up to 25 lb (11 kg). The rind is black with no stripes or spots. It is only grown on the island of Hokkaido, Japan, where up to 10 000 watermelons are produced every year. In June 2008, one of the first harvested watermelons was sold at an auction for 650 000 yen (6300 USD), making the most expensive watermelon ever sold. The average selling price is generally around 25 000 yen (250 USD).

Watermelon flowers

Culture

For commercial plantings, one beehive per acre (over 9,000 m² per hive) is the minimum recommendation by the US Department of Agriculture for pollination of conventional, seeded varieties. Because seedless hybrids have sterile pollen; pollinizer rows of varieties with viable pollen must also be planted.

Since the supply of viable pollen is reduced and pollination is much more critical in producing the seedless variety, the recommended number of hives per acre, or pollinator density, increases to three hives per acre (1,300 m² per hive).

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