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Aloe

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Aloe

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Aloe (scientific name: Aloe) commonly known as Aloe, native to the Mediterranean, Africa, for the Asphodelaceae perennial herbs, According to research, more than 300 kinds of wild aloe species, mainly in Africa and other places. The plant popular popular favorite, mainly because of its ease of cultivation, both for the mosaic of ornamental plants. Only six kinds of edible species, of which Aloe Vera has a variety of valuable drugs are:

1. Yang Aloe Vera (also known as Barbados aloe vera or Aloe barbadensis Aloe Barbadensis / Aloe Vera)
2. Aloe vera (distributed in North Africa, West Indies),
3. Cape Aloe (found in southern Africa),
4. Yuanjiang aloe vera.

Plant Characteristics

Aloe Vera with short stem; leaf evergreen, hypertrophic juicy, edge thinning birth spines gradually sharp blade length of up to 15 to 40 centimeters, 1.5 centimeters thick, grass green; summer and autumn flowering, raceme from the leaf extract from , up to 60 to 90 cm, in which inflorescence up to 20 cm, there is alienation arrangement of yellow flowers; capsule Seeds many different varieties of shape difference between the larger.

Chinese Medicinal

Bitter cold in nature, Liver heat, purge, pesticides; also used for headache, constipation, children scared epilepsy, rickets Boil ulcers, burns, ringworm sores, hemorrhoids, atrophic rhinitis, scrofula, hepatitis, bile duct stones, wet eczema, etc.. However, many other varieties, only a few varieties can be used for consumption or external use, in which the best varieties of medicinal value for the Aloe barbadensis (Aloe Barbadensis, also known as Aloe Vera).

Ingredients

Aloe leaf contains more than 200 kinds of compounds, which include 20 kinds of minerals, 18 kinds of amino acids, 12 kinds of vitamins and other nutrients in a variety of [1], including a variety of sticky polysaccharides, fatty acids, anthraquinones and yellow ketones, sugar, active enzymes. Anthraquinones, also known as Anthra owned agricultural complex (Anthraquinone complex), there is the effectiveness of disinfection sterilization, mainly present in the juice inside. However, the epidermis contains aloe emodin, can make patients and diarrhea, and to make pregnant women, abortion, it must be peeled aloe consumed.

Cultivation methods

* Love grows in the drainage in good and difficult to harden in the loose soil.
* The more the soil can be mixed gravel ash, such as leaf mold Cao Hui and so better able to join.
* Drainage poor soil permeability will cause the roots of respiratory obstruction, lousy root necrosis, but the sandy soil often result in excessive moisture and nutrient loss, so that the growth of aloe bad.
* Aloe afraid of the cold. If less than 0 ℃, it will frostbite. Stop growing at about 5 ℃, its optimum growth temperature of 15 ℃ ~ 35 ℃, humidity 45% ~ 85%.

Greenhouse cultivation of the use of thermal insulation will solve a large area north of the winter issue of planting of aloe. Aloe and, like all plants need water, but are most afraid of water. In the rainy wet season or a bad case of the drainage is very easy to leaf shrinkage of root rot or death of branches. Aloe in about 15 ℃ ~ 35 ℃ fastest-growing, China’s 3 to 10 months, most of the region in line with this temperature. During this period to strengthen the management, multiple scarification weeding, can promote soil aeration to accelerate the transformation of soil nutrients, promoting well-developed root system and improve resistance to diseases, to achieve rapid and healthy growth. Timely watering during the hot summer, with particular attention to. Aloe Yoshimitsu heat, but in the summer temperatures are high, but also to prevent the precipitation came from a drought, proper watering receive higher yields. Caused by excessive watering can, generally 5 to 10 days once poured. Vigorous growth period of strains of soil nutrients in body constantly being absorbed, such as aloe vera in time will affect the growth of top-dressing. General fertilizer organic fertilizer slow, can not wait for the growth by affecting the aloe vera after fertilization, so too late. One should not be too much fertilizer, not stained leaves, rinse with water if the stain to use. Aloe vera plant can be picked in about three years had. The leaves of medicinal value of more than three years later. Leaf from the plant when the lower part of the general began, mature leaves hot Su Shun, do not hurt the plants, and daylight to keep the body complete. Aloe leaf accounted for more than 96% moisture. Damaged leaves in the juice out of body, its nutrition is a loss. Also damaged leaves are not easy to save, but also affect other blade storage. We should control the watering in the autumn can be taken to sprinkle water, even in relatively dry soil does not matter, it will easily lousy root. In addition to autumn and winter to keep warm, but also note that as far as possible the sun aloe more common. You can put potted plants, aloe sheltered sunny place. If the temperature is lower, you can use a transparent plastic hooded, 9:00 in the morning after the three-point prior to the afternoon sun.

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Divaricate Saposhnikovia

Divaricate Saposhnikovia

Organic Radix Saposhnikoviae (Rhizoma)

Latin name:Radix Saposhnikoviae English name: Divaricate Saposhnikovia Root

Chinese name: Fang Feng The source is from the root of Saposhnikoviae divaricata (Turcz.) Schischk, family Umbelliferae. Its producing areas are mainly in those of Northeast China, Hebei, Sichuan, and Yunnan, etc..

Divaricate Saposhnikovia Rootis the dried root of Saposhnikovia divaricata (Turcz.) Schischk. (Fam. Umbelliferae).

Functions: To induce diaphoresis, to dispel wind, to alleviate rheumatic conditions, and to relieve spasm.

Indications: Headache in colds; urticaria; rheumatic arthralgia; tetanus.

Color: brown powder

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Fennel – Foeniculum vulgare

Fennel – Foeniculum vulgare

Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is a plant species in the genus Foeniculum (treated as the sole species in the genus by most botanists). It is a member of the family Apiaceae (formerly the Umbelliferae).

It is a hardy, perennial, umbelliferous herb, with yellow flowers and feathery leaves.

It is indigenous to the shores of the Mediterranean, but has become widely naturalised in many parts of the world, especially on dry soils near the sea-coast and on riverbanks.

It is a highly aromatic and flavorful herb with culinary and medicinal uses, and, along with the similar-tasting anise, is one of the primary ingredients of absinthe.

Florence fennel or finocchio is a selection with a swollen, bulb-like stem base that is used as a vegetable.

Fennel is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including the mouse moth and the anise swallowtail.

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Cumin

Cumin

Cumin (Cuminum cyminum, pronounced /ˈkjuːmɪn/ or UK: /ˈkʌmɪn/, US: /ˈkuːmɪn/, and sometimes spelled cummin) is a flowering plant in the family Apiaceae, native from the east Mediterranean to East India.

Scientific Name: Cuminum cyminum

Biological Background: A seasoning that is the principal ingredient of curry powder, a blend of powdered Indian spices. Cumin is a member of the parsley family and cumin seeds resemble caraway seeds. The aromatic seed has a characteristic strong, slightly bitter taste. Traditionally cumin has been used to flavor cheese, unleavened bread, chili, and tomato sauce.

Nutritional Information: Due to its use as a spice, cumin provides insignificant amount of nutrients.

Pharmacological Activity: Studies have indicated that cumin has strong anticancer activity, which may be due to its phytochemical cuminaldehyde. Cuminaldehyde also has strong antiinflammatory properties. In addition, cumin contains two phytochemicals, cuminyl ester and limonene, which have been shown to stop aflatoxin from binding to DNA to start the cancer process.

Eating Tips: Use cumin to add an earthy flavor to Indian, Middle Eastern, and Mexican cuisines.

Etymology

The English “cumin” derives from the French “cumin”, which was borrowed indirectly from Arabic “كمون” Kammūn via Spanish comino during the Arab rule in Spain in the 15th century. The spice is native to Arabic-speaking Syria where cumin thrives in its hot and arid lands. Cumin seeds have been found in some ancient Syrian archeological sites.

The word found its way from Syria to neighbouring Turkey and nearby Greece most likely before it found its way to Spain. Like many other Arabic words in the English language, cumin was acquired by Western Europe via Spain rather than the Grecian route.

Some suggest that the word is derived from the Latin cuminum and Greek κύμινον. The Greek term itself has been borrowed from Arabic. Forms of this word are attested in several ancient Semitic languages, including kamūnu in Akkadian.The ultimate source is believed to be the Sumerian word gamun.

A folk etymology connects the word with the Persian city Kerman where, the story goes, most of ancient Persia’s cumin was produced. For the Persians the expression “carrying cumin to Kerman” has the same meaning as the English language phrase “carrying coals to Newcastle”. Kerman, locally called “Kermun”, would have become “Kumun” and finally “cumin” in the European languages.

In Northern India and Nepal, cumin is known as jeera (Devanagari जीरा) or jira, while in Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan it is known as zeera (Persian زيره); in Southern India it is called “Jeerakam” ( ജീരകം ) in Malayalam and Jeerige ( ಜೀರಿಗೆ in ಕನ್ನಡ (Kannada)) or jeeragam or seeragam (Tamil (ஜீரகம்/சீரகம்)) or jilakarra (Telugu); in Sri Lanka it is known as duru , the white variety being suduru and the large variety, maduru ; in Iran, South Asia and Central Asia, cumin is known as zireh; in Turkey, cumin is known as kimyon; in northwestern China, cumin is known as ziran (孜然). In Arabic, it is known as al-kamuwn (الكمون). Cumin is called kemun in Ethiopian, and is one of the ingredients in the spice mix berbere.

History

Cumin has been in use since ancient times. Seeds, excavated at the Syrian site Tell ed-Der, have been dated to the second millennium BC. They have also been reported from several New Kingdom levels of ancient Egyptian archaeological sites.

Originally cultivated in Iran and Mediterranean region, cumin is mentioned in the Bible in both the Old Testament (Isaiah 28:27) and the New Testament (Matthew 23:23). It was also known in ancient Greece and Rome. The Greeks kept cumin at the dining table in its own container (much as pepper is frequently kept today), and this practice continues in Morocco. Cumin fell out of favour in Europe except in Spain and Malta during the Middle Ages. It was introduced to the Americas by Spanish and Portuguese colonists.

Since returned to favour in parts of Europe, today it is mostly grown in Iran, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Morocco, Egypt, India, Syria, Mexico, and Chile. The plant occurs as a rare casual in the British Isles, mainly in Southern England, but the frequency of its occurrence has declined greatly; according to the Botanical Society of the British Isles’ most recent Atlas, there has been only one confirmed record since the year 2000.

Uses

Cumin is the second most popular spice in the world after black pepper.[5][unreliable source?] Cumin seeds are used as a spice for their distinctive aroma, popular in Indian, Pakistani, North African, Middle Eastern, Sri Lankan, Cuban, Northern Mexican cuisines, and the Western Chinese cuisines of Sichuan and Xinjiang. Cumin can be found in some Dutch cheeses such as Leyden cheese, and in some traditional breads from France. It is commonly used in traditional Brazilian cuisine. Cumin can be an ingredient in (often Texan or Mexican-style) Chili powder, and is found in achiote blends, adobos, sofrito, garam masala, curry powder, and bahaarat.

Cumin can be used ground or as whole seeds, as it draws out their natural sweetnesses. It is traditionally added to chili, curries, and other Middle-Eastern, Indian, Cuban and Tex-Mex foods. Cumin has also been used on meat in addition to other common seasonings. It is not common in Mexican cuisine. However, the spice is a common taste in Tex-Mex dishes. It is extensively used in the cuisines of the Indian subcontinent. Cumin was also used heavily in ancient Roman cuisine. Cumin is typically used in Mediterranean cooking from Spanish, Italian and Middle Eastern cuisine. It helps to add an earthy and warming feeling to cooking making it a staple in certain stews and soups.

Medicine

In South Asia, cumin tea (dry seeds boiled in hot water) is used to distinguish false labour (due to gas) from real labour.

In Sri Lanka, toasting cumin seeds and then boiling them in water makes a tea used to soothe acute stomach problems.

It is commonly believed in parts of South Asia, that cumin seeds help with digestion. No scientific evidence seems to suggest this is the case.

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Coriander Herb

Coriander Herb

Coriander (Coriandrum sativum) is an annual herb in the family Apiaceae. Coriander Herbs are also known as cilantro, particularly in the Americas.

Coriander Herbs is native to southwestern Asia and west to North Africa. These herb seeds is a soft, hairless plant growing to 50 cm 20 in tall.

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Big Fruit Elm Fruit

Big Fruit Elm Fruit

Sources : Bigfruit Elm Fruit is the dried prepared fruit of Ulmus macrocarpa hance. or Ulmus pumila L. The drug is collected in summer when ripe, and the seeds are soaked in water until ferment, added elm bark flour, red soil, chrysanthemi flos powder and warm boiling water, mixed, cut into pieces, and dried.

Action : to kill parasite and remove food stagnancy.

Indications : Abdominal pain or infantile malnutrition due to intestinal parasitosis.

Elms are deciduous and semi-deciduous trees comprising the genus Ulmus, family Ulmaceae. Elms first appeared in the Miocene period about 40 million years ago. Originating in what is now central Asia, the tree flourished and established itself over most of the Northern Hemisphere, traversing the Equator in Indonesia. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, many species and cultivars were planted as ornamentals in Europe, North America, and parts of the Southern Hemisphere, notably Australasia.

Elm leaves are alternate, with simple, single- or, most commonly, doubly serrate margins, usually asymmetric at the base and acuminate at the apex. The genus is hermaphroditic, having perfect flowers which, being wind-pollinated, are apetalous. The fruit is a round wind-dispersed samara. All species are tolerant of a wide range of soils and pH levels but, with few exceptions, demand good drainage.

The other genera of the Ulmaceae are Zelkova (Zelkova) and Planera (Water Elm). Celtis (Hackberry or Nettle Tree), formerly included in the Ulmaceae, is now included in the family Cannabaceae.

Species, varieties and hybrids

Main articles: List of Elm species and varieties by common name, List of Elm species and varieties by scientific name, List of Elm cultivars, hybrids and hybrid cultivars, and List of Elm synonyms and accepted names

There are approximately 30 to 40 species of elm; the ambiguity in number is a result of difficulty in delineating species, owing to the ease of hybridization between them and the development of local seed-sterile vegetatively propagated microspecies in some areas, mainly in the field elm group. Rackham describes Ulmus as the most difficult critical genus in the entire British flora. Eight species are endemic to North America, and a smaller number to Europe; the greatest diversity is found in China.

During the 18th and 19th centuries, elm cultivars enjoyed much popularity as ornamentals in Europe by virtue of their rapid growth and variety of foliage and forms. This ‘belle époque’ lasted until the First World War, when the consequences of hostilities, notably in Germany whence at least 40 cultivars originated, and the outbreak of Dutch elm disease saw the elm slide into horticultural decline. The devastation caused by the Second World War, and the demise in 1944 of the huge Späth nursery in Berlin, only accelerated the process. The outbreak of the new, three times more virulent, strain of Dutch elm disease Ophiostoma novo-ulmi in the late 1960s brought the tree to its nadir.

Since circa 1990 however, the elm has enjoyed a slow renaissance through the successful development in North America and Europe (notably the Netherlands until 1992, and, more recently, Italy) of cultivars highly resistant to the new disease. Consequently, the total number of named cultivars, ancient and modern, now exceeds 300, although many of the older clones, possibly over 120, have been lost to cultivation. Unhappily, enthusiasm for the newer clones often remains low owing to the poor performance of earlier, supposedly disease-resistant Dutch trees released in the 1960s and 1970s. In the Netherlands, sales of elm cultivars slumped from over 56,000 in 1989 to just 6,800 in 2004, whilst in the UK, only four of the new American and European releases were commercially available in 2008.

In 1997, a European Union elm project was initiated, its aim to coordinate the conservation of all the elm genetic resources of the member states and, among other things, to assess their resistance to Dutch elm disease. Accordingly, over 300 clones were selected and propagated for testing.

The classification adopted for Elm species, varieties, cultivars and hybrids is largely based on that established by Brummitt. A large number of synonyms have accumulated over the last three centuries, their Accepted Names can be found on Elm Synonyms and Accepted Names.

Cultivation and uses

Wych Elm leaves and seeds

Elm wood was valued for its interlocking grain, and consequent resistance to splitting, with significant uses in wheels, chair seats and coffins. The density of the wood varies due to differences between species, but averages around 560kg per cubic metre. The wood is also resistant to decay when permanently wet, and hollowed trunks were widely used as water pipes during the medieval period in Europe. However this resistance to decay in water does not extend to ground contact.

Elms also have a long history of cultivation for fodder, with the leafy branches cut for livestock. Elm bark, cut into strips and boiled, sustained much of the rural population of Norway during the great famine of 1812. The seeds are particularly nutritious, comprising 45% crude protein, and < 7% fibre by dry mass.

From the 18th century to the early 20th century, elms were among the most widely planted ornamental trees in both Europe and North America. They were particularly popular as a street tree in avenue plantings in towns and cities, creating high-tunnelled effects. Their tolerance of air-pollution and the comparatively rapid decomposition of their leaf-litter in the fall were further advantages. In North America the species most commonly planted was the American Elm Ulmus americana, which had unique properties that made it ideal for such use: rapid growth, adaptation to a broad range of climates and soils, strong wood, resistance to wind damage, and vase-like growth habit requiring minimal pruning; In Europe, the Wych Elm U. glabra and the Smooth-leaved Elm U. minor var. minor were the most widely planted in the countryside, with the former in northern areas (Scandinavia, northern Britain), and the latter further south. The hybrid between these two, Dutch Elm U. × hollandica, occurs naturally and was also commonly planted. In England, it was the English Elm Ulmus procera which came to dominate the landscape. Most commonly planted in hedgerows, the English Elm sometimes occurred in densities of over 1000 per square kilometre; indeed such was its ubiquity it almost always featured in the landscape paintings of John Constable. In Australia, large numbers of English Elms, as well as other species and cultivars, were planted as ornamentals following their introduction in the 19th century.

In parks and gardens, from about 1850 to 1920 the most prized small ornamental elm was the Camperdown Elm, Ulmus glabra ‘Camperdownii’, a contorted weeping cultivar of the Wych Elm grafted on a standard elm trunk to give a wide, spreading and weeping fountain shape in large garden spaces.

Pests and diseases

Elm flowers

Many species of Lepidopteran larvae (butterflies and moths) use elm as a food plant; see list of Lepidoptera that feed on elms. In Australia, introduced elm trees are sometimes used as foodplants by the larvae of hepialid moths of the genus Aenetus. These burrow horizontally into the trunk then vertically down.

Dutch elm disease

Dutch elm disease devastated elms throughout Europe and North America in the second half of the 20th century. It is caused by a micro-fungus transmitted by two species of Scolytus elm-bark beetle which act as vectors. The disease affects all species of elm native to North America and Europe, but many Asiatic species have anti-fungal genes and are resistant. Fungal spores, introduced into wounds in the tree caused by the beetles, invade the xylem or vascular system. The tree responds by producing tyloses, effectively blocking the flow from roots to leaves. Woodland trees in North America are not quite as susceptible to the disease because they usually lack the root-grafting of the urban elms and are somewhat more isolated from each other. In France, inoculation of over three hundred clones of the European species with the fungus failed to find a single variety possessed of any significant resistance.

The first, less aggressive strain of the disease fungus, Ophiostoma ulmi, appeared in Europe in 1910 and had spread to North America by 1928, but declined in the 1940s. The second, far more virulent strain of the disease Ophiostoma novo-ulmi was identified in Europe in the late 1960s, and within a decade had killed over 20 million trees (approximately 75%) in the UK alone. Approximately three times more deadly, the origin of the new strain remains a mystery; earlier believed to have been endemic to China, surveys there in 1986 found no trace of it, although bark beetles were common. The most popular hypothesis is that it arose from a hybrid between the original O. ulmi and another strain endemic to the Himalaya, Ophiostoma himal-ulmi.[14]

While there is no sign of the current pandemic waning, there is some hope in the susceptibility of the fungus to a disease of its own caused by d-factors: naturally occurring virus-like agents that can severely debilitate it and reduce its sporulation.

Owing to its geographical isolation and effective quarantine enforcement, Australia has so far been unaffected by Dutch Elm Disease, and as such retains many stands of English Elms; the long avenues of Royal Parade and St Kilda Road in Melbourne, and Grattan Street in Carlton, Victoria, are three examples.

The provinces of Alberta and British Columbia in western Canada are also free of Dutch Elm disease. Aggressive means are being taken to prevent any occurrences of the disease in these two provinces. In fact, Alberta has the world’s largest stands of elms unaffected by the disease, and many streets and parks in Edmonton and Calgary are still lined with large numbers of healthy mature trees.

The city of Brighton & Hove on the South Coast of England has retained a high proportion of its Elms. In the 1970s the Parks and Gardens departments of the two towns (since amalgamated into one city) pursued a vigorous policy of spotting and clearing infected elms, which is continued today within the designated “Elm Disease Management Area”. Among the many trees thus preserved are several magnificent examples in and around the Royal Pavilion Gardens.

Resistant trees

Efforts to develop resistant cultivars began in the Netherlands in 1928 and continued, uninterrupted by World War II, until 1992. Similar programmes were initiated in North America (1937), Italy (1978), and Spain (1990s). Research has followed two paths:

1. Hybrid cultivars

Owing to their innate resistance to Dutch elm disease, Asiatic species have been crossed with European species, or with other Asiatic elms, to produce trees highly resistant to disease and tolerant of native climates. After a number of false dawns in the 1970s, this approach has produced a range of fine cultivars now commercially available in North America and Europe.  However, some of these trees, notably those with the Siberian Elm U. pumila in their ancestry, will probably have a comparatively small mature size and lack the forms for which the iconic American Elm and English Elm were prized. Moreover, several of these trees exported to northwestern Europe have proven unsuited to the maritime climate conditions, notably because of their intolerance of ponding on poorly drained soils in winter. Dutch hybridizations invariably included the Himalayan Elm U. wallichiana as a source of anti-fungal genes and have proven more tolerant of wet ground; they should also ultimately reach a greater size. A number of highly resistant cultivars have been released since 2000, notably ‘Nanguen’ (Lutèce).

2. Species and species cultivars

In North America, careful selection has produced a number of trees not only resistant to disease, but also the droughts and extremely cold winters afflicting the continent. Research in the USA has concentrated on the American Elm U. americana, resulting in the release of highly resistant clones, notably ‘Valley Forge’. Much work has also been done into the selection of Asiatic species and cultivars. In Europe, it is the unique example of the European White Elm Ulmus laevis which has received the most attention. Whilst this elm has little innate resistance to Dutch elm disease, it is not favoured by the vector bark beetles and thus only becomes colonized and infected when there are no other choices, a rare situation in western Europe. Research in Spain has suggested that it may be the presence of a triterpene, alnulin, which makes the tree bark unattractive to the beetle species that spread the disease. However this has not been conclusively proved.

Disclaimer

Elms take many decades to grow to maturity, and as the introduction of these cultivars is relatively recent, their long-term performance and ultimate size cannot be predicted with certainty. However, the National Elm Trial has been underway since 2005 as a large-scale scientific effort to assess strengths and weaknesses of the leading cultivars over a 10-year period.

Notable elm trees

The Biscarrosse Elm, France, planted 1350

  • Sherwood Forest — the “Langton Elm” was a large tree that “was for a long time so remarkable as to have a special keeper”, according to a book published in 1881.
  • The Biscarrosse Elm. Planted in 1350, this Smooth-leafed Elm Ulmus minor subsp. minor survives in the centre of Biscarrosse in the Landes region of south-west France, well isolated from disease-carrying Scolytus beetles.
  • Oxford — “Joe Pullen’s Tree” was planted in about 1700 by the Rev. Josiah Pullen, vice president of Magdalen Hall. Josiah Pullen “used to Walk to that place every day, sometimes twice a day”, according to diarist Thomas Hearne. The famous essayist Richard Steele (1672–1729) said his regular walks as an undergraduate to the elm with Pullen helped him to reach a “florid old age”. The elm became famous at Oxford and its fame grew with its age. In November 1795, Gentleman’s Magazine reported that “Joe Pullen, the famous elm, upon Headington hills, had one of its large branches torn off and carried to a great distance.” When new parliamentary district boundaries were drawn after the Reform Act 1832, the tree was named as a landmark helping to mark the boundary of the Parliamentary Borough of Oxford. In early 1847, the owner of the property arranged to have the tree torn down, and work started on it before protests put an end to the plan. By 1892, however, rot had set in, and the tree was torn down to its (large and tall) “stump”. Early in the morning of October 13, 1909, vandals set fire to the stump. A plaque was soon after installed on the side wall of Davenport House in Cuckoo Lane, marking the spot. It reads[30]: Near this spot stood the famous elm planted by the Rev. Josiah Pullen about 1680 and known as Jo Pullen’s Tree. Destroyed by fire on 13 October 1909.

    “Herbie”, New England’s oldest and tallest elm, prior to its spread being reduced in 2008

  • “Herbie” in Yarmouth, Maine, stood by present-day East Main Street (Route 88) from 1793-2010. At 110 feet in height, it was believed to be, between 1997 and the date of its felling, the oldest and tallest of its kind in New England. The tree, which partially stood in the front yard of a private residence, also had a 20-foot circumference and (until mid-2008) a 93-foot crown spread. As of 2003, only twenty of Yarmouth’s original 739 elms had survived Dutch elm disease. In August 2009 it was revealed that, after battling fifteen bouts of Dutch elm disease, the tree had lost, and on January 19, 2010 it was cut down.

    Penn and Indians with treaty under the elm

  • The “Treaty Elm” — In what is now Penn Treaty Park, the founder of Pennsylvania, William Penn, is said to have entered into a treaty of peace with native Indians under a picturesque elm tree immortalized in a painting by Benjamin West. West made the tree, already a local landmark, famous by incorporating it into his painting after hearing legends (of unknown veracity) about the tree being the location of the treaty. No documentary evidence exists of any treaty Penn signed beneath a particular tree. On March 6, 1810 a great storm blew the tree down. Measurements taken at the time showed it to have a circumference of 24 feet (7.3 m), and its age was estimated to be 280 years. Wood from the tree was made into furniture, canes, walking sticks and various trinkets that Philadelphians kept as relics.
  • The Liberty Tree on Boston Common that was a rallying point for the growing resistance to the rule of England over the American colonies.
  • The Great Elm on Boston Common, supposed to have been in existence before the settlement of Boston, at the time of its destruction by the storm of the 15th of February 1876 measured 22 ft. in circumference.Cambridge, Massachusetts — George Washington is said to have taken command of the American Continental Army under “the Washington Elm” in Cambridge on July 3, 1775. The tree survived until the 1920s and “was thought to be a survivor of the primeval forest”. In 1872, a large branch fell from it and was used to construct a pulpit for a nearby church. The tree, an American White Elm, became a celebrated attraction, with its own plaque, a fence constructed around it and a road moved in order to help preserve it. The tree was cut down (or fell — sources differ) in October 1920 after an expert determined it was dead. The city of Cambridge had plans for it to be “carefully cut up and a piece sent to each state of the country and to the District of Columbia and Alaska,” according to The Harvard Crimson. As late as the early 1930s, garden shops advertised that they had cuttings of the tree for sale, although the accuracy of the claims has been doubted. A Harvard “professor of plant anatomy” examined the tree rings days after the tree was felled and pronounced it between 204 and 210 years old, making it at most 62 years old when Washington took command of the troops at Cambridge. The tree would have been a bit more than two feet in diameter (at 30 inches above ground) in 1773. In 1896, an alumnus of the University of Washington, obtained a rooted cutting of the Cambridge tree and sent it to Professor Edmund Meany at the university. The cutting was planted, cuttings were then taken from it, including one planted on February 18, 1932, the 200th anniversary of the birth of George Washington, for whom Washington state is named. That tree remains on the campus of the Washington State Capitol. Just to the west of the tree is a small elm from a cutting made in 1979.
  • Washington, D.C. — George Washington supposedly had a favorite spot under an elm tree near the United States Capitol Building from which he would watch construction of the building. The elm stood near the Senate wing of the Capitol building until 1948.
  • Brown University — “Elmo”, a large elm which “once defined the Thayer Street entrance to Brown’s new Watson Institute for International Studies” on the campus of the Providence, Rhode Island school, contracted Dutch Elm disease and was torn down in December 2003, according to a campus news release. The tree “was thought to have been between 80 and 100 years old. Wood from the tree, one of the largest on campus, was used in various student art projects.
  • Association Island — the General Electric think tank organization, the Elfun Society, founded in 1928 at Association Island in the Thousand Islands area of northern New York state, is named after a “famous” elm tree on the 65 acre isle. The tree died in the 1970s, but it survives in the elm tree logo still used by Elfun.
  • Philipsburg Elm – 280 year old 30 meter elm in Philipsburg, Quebec, dubbed “the king of elms”, which was cut down in March 2009 after death from Dutch elm disease.
  • University of Georgia — “The MooCoo Tree,” which stands in front of Theta Chi Fraternity, is one of the only Dutch Elm trees east of the Mississippi. Students are known to engage in the “MooCoo Challenge,” which consists climbing into the Elm and consuming twelve beers before coming down. New Haven, Connecticut had the first public tree planting program in America, producing a canopy of mature trees (including some large elms) that gave New Haven the nickname “The Elm City”. This later gave rise to the Yale song, Neath the Elms.

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