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Fennel – Foeniculum vulgare

Fennel – Foeniculum vulgare

Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is a plant species in the genus Foeniculum (treated as the sole species in the genus by most botanists). It is a member of the family Apiaceae (formerly the Umbelliferae).

It is a hardy, perennial, umbelliferous herb, with yellow flowers and feathery leaves.

It is indigenous to the shores of the Mediterranean, but has become widely naturalised in many parts of the world, especially on dry soils near the sea-coast and on riverbanks.

It is a highly aromatic and flavorful herb with culinary and medicinal uses, and, along with the similar-tasting anise, is one of the primary ingredients of absinthe.

Florence fennel or finocchio is a selection with a swollen, bulb-like stem base that is used as a vegetable.

Fennel is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including the mouse moth and the anise swallowtail.

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Areca Seed – Areca Catechu

Areca Seed – Areca Catechu

Areca catechu is the areca palm or areca nut palm, (Malay: Pinang), a species of palm which grows in much of the tropical Pacific, Asia, and parts of east Africa. The palm is believed to have originated in either Malaysia or the Philippines. Areca is derived from a local name from the Malabar coast of India and catechu is from another Malay name for this palm ‘caccu.’

This palm is often erroneously called the betel tree because its fruit, the areca nut, is often chewed along with the betel leaf, a leaf from a vine of the Piperaceae family.

Growth

It is a medium-sized and graceful palm tree growing straight to 20 m tall, with a trunk 10-15cm in diameter. The leaves are 1.5-2 m long, pinnate, with numerous, crowded leaflets. It is also known as Puga in Sanskrit, Supari in Marathi.

Characteristics

19th century drawing of Areca catechu

Areca catechu is grown for its commercially important seed crop, the areca nut. The seed contains alkaloids such as arecaine and arecoline, which when chewed is intoxicating and is also slightly addictive. Areca palms are grown in India, Malaysia, Taiwan and many other Asian countries for their seeds.

Etymology

Penang Island, off the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia, Fua Mulaku in the Maldives and Guwahati in Assam,coastal areas of Kerala and Karnataka in India, are some of the places named after a local name for areca nut.

Uses

The Areca palm is also used as an interior landscaping species. It is often used in large indoor areas such as malls and hotels. It won’t fruit or reach full size. Indoors it is a slow growing, low water, high light plant that is sensitive to spider mite and occasionally mealybug. The areca nut is also popular for chewing throughout some Asian countries such as Taiwan, Vietnam, Philippine, Malaysia, and India and the Pacific notably Papua New Guinea where it is very popular. Chewing areca nut is quite popular among working classes in Taiwan. The nut itself can be addictive and has direct link to mouth cancers. Areca nut in Taiwan will usually contain artificial additives such as limestone powder.

The extract of Areca catechu has been shown to have antidepressant properties, but it may be addictive.

Areca Seed is the dried ripe seed of Areca catechu L. (Fam. Palmae).

Action: To kill worms, to remove undigested food, to promote the flow of qi, and to stop malarial attacks.

Indications: Taeniasis, ascariasis, fasciolopsiasis; abdominal pain due to intestinal parasitosis; diarrhea and tenesmus due to accumulation of undigested food; edema and weakness of the legs; malaria.

Usage:For the treatment of taeniasis and fasciolopsi- asis

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Cumin

Cumin

Cumin (Cuminum cyminum, pronounced /ˈkjuːmɪn/ or UK: /ˈkʌmɪn/, US: /ˈkuːmɪn/, and sometimes spelled cummin) is a flowering plant in the family Apiaceae, native from the east Mediterranean to East India.

Scientific Name: Cuminum cyminum

Biological Background: A seasoning that is the principal ingredient of curry powder, a blend of powdered Indian spices. Cumin is a member of the parsley family and cumin seeds resemble caraway seeds. The aromatic seed has a characteristic strong, slightly bitter taste. Traditionally cumin has been used to flavor cheese, unleavened bread, chili, and tomato sauce.

Nutritional Information: Due to its use as a spice, cumin provides insignificant amount of nutrients.

Pharmacological Activity: Studies have indicated that cumin has strong anticancer activity, which may be due to its phytochemical cuminaldehyde. Cuminaldehyde also has strong antiinflammatory properties. In addition, cumin contains two phytochemicals, cuminyl ester and limonene, which have been shown to stop aflatoxin from binding to DNA to start the cancer process.

Eating Tips: Use cumin to add an earthy flavor to Indian, Middle Eastern, and Mexican cuisines.

Etymology

The English “cumin” derives from the French “cumin”, which was borrowed indirectly from Arabic “كمون” Kammūn via Spanish comino during the Arab rule in Spain in the 15th century. The spice is native to Arabic-speaking Syria where cumin thrives in its hot and arid lands. Cumin seeds have been found in some ancient Syrian archeological sites.

The word found its way from Syria to neighbouring Turkey and nearby Greece most likely before it found its way to Spain. Like many other Arabic words in the English language, cumin was acquired by Western Europe via Spain rather than the Grecian route.

Some suggest that the word is derived from the Latin cuminum and Greek κύμινον. The Greek term itself has been borrowed from Arabic. Forms of this word are attested in several ancient Semitic languages, including kamūnu in Akkadian.The ultimate source is believed to be the Sumerian word gamun.

A folk etymology connects the word with the Persian city Kerman where, the story goes, most of ancient Persia’s cumin was produced. For the Persians the expression “carrying cumin to Kerman” has the same meaning as the English language phrase “carrying coals to Newcastle”. Kerman, locally called “Kermun”, would have become “Kumun” and finally “cumin” in the European languages.

In Northern India and Nepal, cumin is known as jeera (Devanagari जीरा) or jira, while in Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan it is known as zeera (Persian زيره); in Southern India it is called “Jeerakam” ( ജീരകം ) in Malayalam and Jeerige ( ಜೀರಿಗೆ in ಕನ್ನಡ (Kannada)) or jeeragam or seeragam (Tamil (ஜீரகம்/சீரகம்)) or jilakarra (Telugu); in Sri Lanka it is known as duru , the white variety being suduru and the large variety, maduru ; in Iran, South Asia and Central Asia, cumin is known as zireh; in Turkey, cumin is known as kimyon; in northwestern China, cumin is known as ziran (孜然). In Arabic, it is known as al-kamuwn (الكمون). Cumin is called kemun in Ethiopian, and is one of the ingredients in the spice mix berbere.

History

Cumin has been in use since ancient times. Seeds, excavated at the Syrian site Tell ed-Der, have been dated to the second millennium BC. They have also been reported from several New Kingdom levels of ancient Egyptian archaeological sites.

Originally cultivated in Iran and Mediterranean region, cumin is mentioned in the Bible in both the Old Testament (Isaiah 28:27) and the New Testament (Matthew 23:23). It was also known in ancient Greece and Rome. The Greeks kept cumin at the dining table in its own container (much as pepper is frequently kept today), and this practice continues in Morocco. Cumin fell out of favour in Europe except in Spain and Malta during the Middle Ages. It was introduced to the Americas by Spanish and Portuguese colonists.

Since returned to favour in parts of Europe, today it is mostly grown in Iran, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Morocco, Egypt, India, Syria, Mexico, and Chile. The plant occurs as a rare casual in the British Isles, mainly in Southern England, but the frequency of its occurrence has declined greatly; according to the Botanical Society of the British Isles’ most recent Atlas, there has been only one confirmed record since the year 2000.

Uses

Cumin is the second most popular spice in the world after black pepper.[5][unreliable source?] Cumin seeds are used as a spice for their distinctive aroma, popular in Indian, Pakistani, North African, Middle Eastern, Sri Lankan, Cuban, Northern Mexican cuisines, and the Western Chinese cuisines of Sichuan and Xinjiang. Cumin can be found in some Dutch cheeses such as Leyden cheese, and in some traditional breads from France. It is commonly used in traditional Brazilian cuisine. Cumin can be an ingredient in (often Texan or Mexican-style) Chili powder, and is found in achiote blends, adobos, sofrito, garam masala, curry powder, and bahaarat.

Cumin can be used ground or as whole seeds, as it draws out their natural sweetnesses. It is traditionally added to chili, curries, and other Middle-Eastern, Indian, Cuban and Tex-Mex foods. Cumin has also been used on meat in addition to other common seasonings. It is not common in Mexican cuisine. However, the spice is a common taste in Tex-Mex dishes. It is extensively used in the cuisines of the Indian subcontinent. Cumin was also used heavily in ancient Roman cuisine. Cumin is typically used in Mediterranean cooking from Spanish, Italian and Middle Eastern cuisine. It helps to add an earthy and warming feeling to cooking making it a staple in certain stews and soups.

Medicine

In South Asia, cumin tea (dry seeds boiled in hot water) is used to distinguish false labour (due to gas) from real labour.

In Sri Lanka, toasting cumin seeds and then boiling them in water makes a tea used to soothe acute stomach problems.

It is commonly believed in parts of South Asia, that cumin seeds help with digestion. No scientific evidence seems to suggest this is the case.

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Coriander Herb

Coriander Herb

Coriander (Coriandrum sativum) is an annual herb in the family Apiaceae. Coriander Herbs are also known as cilantro, particularly in the Americas.

Coriander Herbs is native to southwestern Asia and west to North Africa. These herb seeds is a soft, hairless plant growing to 50 cm 20 in tall.

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Let’s recognize culinary herbs and usability

Let’s recognize culinary herbs and usability

The uniqueness of taste and smell make it often used in cooking various nations. He also has various properties in perubatan and beauty, and used as a durable material also semulajadi and kraftangan materials.

That is the privilege of spices and herbs hundred. In fact, our country (especially Malacca) has become the center of the spice trade in this foreign country when the first one.

Where a single herbs, spices which one?

Herbs usually come than the leaves, when the herb-hundred came than grains, fruits, bark or roots. Sometimes the herbs and spices can also come than the same subject. Example coriander. Fresh coriander leaves are herbs used in cooking tomyam, coriander powder than when the seeds are the main ingredient in curry spices.

Fresh or dried? : While he kept the right, both herbaceous and fresh or dried herbs contain a variety of properties including phytochemicals.

Keeping qualities : It is important to save hundred herbs and spices in the right way to perpetuate properties and taste. Dried herbs may be wrapped in paper towel and add to the former or plastic Beg before inserted into the chest ais. You also get to keep the spice in the former closed airtight cooler outside the box, but make sure the place is dark and dim. He may hold that six months. Do not put it on the edge of the kitchen will influence the heat kerana qualities and taste.

If you want to buy spices powder, do not buy in a quantity that many will quickly kerana berkurangan freshness. For example, black pepper powder, bought in a small quantity and the proportion buying black pepper if you want to dikisar not save them in a long time.

What made it so valuable?
Studies have found that herbs and spices contain many hundreds of anti-oxidants, which help the human body against free radicals that can cause illness. He also contain phytochemicals such as curcumin (the turmeric), capsaicin (chilli), allicin (garlic) and gingerol (ginger), and also various vitamins, including vitamin C.

Curry spices are said to be able to make your minda youth. He is also good to prevent this kanser and also perhaps one of the contributors to the lack of valid kanser disease among the Indian community in India.

He also helped to add other food functions if added to the dish in a phenomenon called ‘synergy of food’. “For this, more serviceable to enjoy the real benefits of cooking rather than taking supplements or food supplements.

Aside from the food, spices and herbs were also used in beauty treatments and Kesihatan. Between commonly used is lemon grass, pandan, and Black Seed manjakani used in treatments such as bathing herbs for example. He is not sahaja body perfume, instead saying the toxic able to remove the body.

The nature of anti-mikrobnya according semulajadi and preservatives used widely used cool boxes dikala absence in ancient times. Hundred and spices like turmeric herbs, ginger, cinnamon, are also widely used in traditional perubatan various nations. Involving Pengubatan spirits joined using herbs and spices like black pepper and garlic that is read with particular readings.

In Food : Between function-hundred and spices in cooking herbs are added perisa and kelazatan without adding more calories, fat, sugar, sodium or salt in cooking. The aroma is not of our making sahaja enjoy keenakannya impatient, in fact he also remove the unpleasant smell like the smell of cooking meat Hamis, and also hanyir fish. Spice hundred and herbs in cooking dishes are also made more visible menyelerakan with color and shape of various.

To perpetuate herbaceous flavor and color, put it at the end of cooking. But if you want to taste the ‘entry’ into the cooking, cooking tambahkannya early. You also may mangle herbs or tapped for a stronger taste.
Most spices like curry or soup spices, savory pan-fried so crisp before adding water or coconut milk does not seem so rempahnya ‘raw’.

10 Ways to Enjoy the Herb and Spice in Food
1. You may make one of the curry spice ingredients perapan chicken or fish stir-fried or baked saffron substitute.
2. Dessert like flan or bread pudding may diperisakan with cinnamon bark powder or nutmeg powder.
3. Add fresh herbs such as kesum leaf, lemongrass and chili hirisan into your kerabu or salad.
4. Add herbs such as pudina leaves into your tea is still warm or your favorite fruit juice.
5. Boiled hirisan or lemongrass or ginger pieces with water. Sejukkan and add a little sweetener like honey or sugar. He is refreshing.
6. Brush butter mixed with crushed garlic and chopped herbs to parsli and grilled bread for garlic bread lazat.
7. Saute spices with chilli four companions who used to spicy dishes spicy sour.
8. Mayang subtle lime leaves and lemon over fish hiaskannya cook your favorite chili.
9. Add oregano herbs into your pasta sauce.
10. Enter nutmeg or cloves with epal stew and eat with plates of milk or make it the core of a burned pastry.

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Pineapple

Pineapple

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Scientific Name: Ananas cosmosus

Biological Background: A tropical plant with stiff, spiny leaves that yields a single large fruit. Pineapple originated in Brazil.

Nutritional Information: One cup (155 g) of raw pineapple contains 76 calories, 0.6 g protein, 19.2 g carbohydrates, 2.95 g fiber, 175 g potassium, 124 mg vitamin C, 0.14 mg thiamin, 0.06 mg riboflavin, 0.65 mg niacin.

Pharmacological Activity: It suppresses inflammation due to Bromelain, an antibacterial enzyme. Pineapple aids digestion and helps to dissolve blood clots, and is food for preventing osteoporosis and bone fractures because of its very high manganese content. It is also antibacterial, antiviral and mildly estrogenic.

Eating Tips: Eat fresh. Canning destroys some pharmacological activities of pineapple.

Etymology

The word pineapple in English was first recorded in 1398, when it was originally used to describe the reproductive organs of conifer trees (now termed pine cones). When European explorers discovered this tropical fruit, they called them pineapples (term first recorded in that sense in 1664) because of their resemblance to what is now known as the pine cone. The term pine cone was first recorded in 1694 and was used to replace the original meaning of pineapple.

In the scientific binomial Ananas comosus, ananas, the original name of the fruit, comes from the Tupi (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) word for pine nanas, as recorded by André Thevenet in 1555 and comosus means “tufted” and refers to the stem of the fruit. Other members of the Ananas genus are often called pine as well by laymen.

Many languages use the Tupian term ananas. In Spanish, pineapples are called piña “pine cone” in Spain and most Hispanic American countries, or ananá (ananás in Argentina) (see the piña colada drink). They have varying names in the languages of India: “Anaasa” (అనాస) in telugu, annachi pazham (Tamil), anarosh (Bengali), and in Malayalam, kaitha chakka. In Malay, pineapples are known as “nanas” or “nenas”. In the Maldivian language of Dhivehi, pineapples are known as alanaasi. A large, sweet pineapple grown especially in Brazil is called abacaxi


Botany

The pineapple is a herbaceous perennial plant which grows to 1.0 to 1.5 metres (3.3 to 4.9 ft) tall with 30 or more trough-shaped and pointed leaves 30 to 100 centimetres (1.0 to 3.3 ft) long, surrounding a thick stem. The pineapple is an example of a multiple fruit: multiple, helically-arranged flowers along the axis each produce a fleshy fruit that becomes pressed against the fruits of adjacent flowers, forming what appears to be a single fleshy fruit.

The fruit of a pineapple are arranged in two interlocking helices, eight in one direction, thirteen in the other, each being a Fibonacci number.

The leaves of the cultivar ‘Smooth Cayenne’ mostly lack spines except at the leaf tip, but the cultivars ‘Spanish’ and ‘Queen’ have large spines along the leaf margins.

Nutrition

Pineapple contains a proteolytic enzyme bromelain, which breaks down protein. Pineapple juice can thus be used as a marinade and tenderizer for meat. The enzymes in raw pineapples can interfere with the preparation of some foods, such as jelly or other gelatin-based desserts. The bromelain breaks down in cooking or the canning process, thus canned pineapple can generally be used with gelatin. These enzymes can be hazardous to someone suffering from certain protein deficiencies or disorders, such as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.[citation needed] Raw pineapples also should not be consumed by those with hemophilia or by those with kidney or liver disease, as it may reduce the time taken to coagulate a consumer’s blood.[citation needed]

Consumers of pineapple have claimed that pineapple has benefits for some intestinal disorders and others believe it serves as a pain reliever; others claim that it helps to induce childbirth when a baby is overdue.

Pineapple is a good source of manganese (91 %DV in a 1 cup serving), as well as containing significant amounts of Vitamin C (94 %DV in a 1 cup serving) and Vitamin B1 (8 %DV in a 1 cup serving).

Cultivation

Southeast Asia dominates world production: in 2001 Thailand produced 1.979 million tons, the Philippines 1.618 million tons while in the Americas, Brazil 1.43 million tons. Total world production in 2001 was 14.220 million tons. The primary exporters of fresh pineapples in 2001 were Costa Rica, 322,000 tons; Côte d’Ivoire, 188,000 tons; and the Philippines, 135,000 tons.

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