Tag Archives: New Zealand

Male Fern Rhizome – Dryopteris crassirhizoma nakai

Male Fern Rhizome – Dryopteris crassirhizoma

Sources : Male Fern Rhizome is the dried rhizome and front bases of Dryopteris crassirhizoma Nakai. The drug is collected in autumn, pared off front and fibrous root, washed clean, dried in the sun.

Action: To remove heat, counteract toxicity, and expel intestina worms. Rhizoma Dryopteris Crassirhizomae (carbonized): to arrest bleeding.

Indications: Abdominal pain due to intestinal worm, sores.

Rhizoma Dryopteris Crassirhizomae (Carbonized): Abnormal uterine bleeding.

A fern is any one of a group of about 12,000 species of plants. Unlike mosses, they have xylem and phloem (making them vascular plants). They have stems, leaves, and roots like other vascular plants. Ferns do not have either seeds or flowers (they reproduce via spores).

By far the largest group of ferns are the leptosporangiate ferns, but ferns as defined here (also called monilophytes) include horsetails, whisk ferns, marattioid ferns, and ophioglossoid ferns. The term pteridophyte also refers to ferns (and possibly other seedless vascular plants; see classification section below).

Ferns first appear in the fossil record 360 million years ago in the Carboniferous but many of the current families and species did not appear until roughly 145 million years ago in the late Cretaceous (after flowering plants came to dominate many environments).

Ferns are not of major economic importance, but some are grown or gathered for food, as ornamental plants, or for remediating contaminated soils. Some are significant weeds. They also feature in mythology, medicine, and art.

Life cycle

Gametophyte (thalloid green mass) and sporophyte (ascendent frond) of Onoclea sensibilis

Ferns are vascular plants differing from lycophytes by having true leaves (megaphylls). They differ from seed plants (gymnosperms and angiosperms) in their mode of reproduction—lacking flowers and seeds. Like all other vascular plants, they have a life cycle referred to as alternation of generations, characterized by a diploid sporophytic and a haploid gametophytic phase. Unlike the gymnosperms and angiosperms, the ferns’ gametophyte is a free-living organism.

Life cycle of a typical fern:

  1. A sporophyte (diploid) phase produces haploid spores by meiosis.
  2. A spore grows by mitosis into a gametophyte, which typically consists of a photosynthetic prothallus.
  3. The gametophyte produces gametes (often both sperm and eggs on the same prothallus) by mitosis.
  4. A mobile, flagellate sperm fertilizes an egg that remains attached to the prothallus.
  5. The fertilized egg is now a diploid zygote and grows by mitosis into a sporophyte (the typical “fern” plant).

Fern ecology

Ferns at Muir Woods, California

The stereotypic image of ferns growing in moist shady woodland nooks is far from being a complete picture of the habitats where ferns can be found growing. Fern species live in a wide variety of habitats, from remote mountain elevations, to dry desert rock faces, to bodies of water or in open fields. Ferns in general may be thought of as largely being specialists in marginal habitats, often succeeding in places where various environmental factors limit the success of flowering plants. Some ferns are among the world’s most serious weed species, including the bracken fern growing in the British highlands, or the mosquito fern (Azolla) growing in tropical lakes, both species forming large aggressively spreading colonies. There are four particular types of habitats that ferns are found in: moist, shady forests; crevices in rock faces, especially when sheltered from the full sun; acid wetlands including bogs and swamps; and tropical trees, where many species are epiphytes (something like a quarter to a third of all fern species).

Many ferns depend on associations with mycorrhizal fungi. Many ferns only grow within specific pH ranges; for instance, the climbing fern (Lygodium) of eastern North America will only grow in moist, intensely acid soils, while the bulblet bladder fern (Cystopteris bulbifera), with an overlapping range, is only found on limestone.

The spores are rich in lipids, protein and calories and some vertebrates so eat these. The European woodmouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) has been found to eat the spores of Culcita macrocarpa and the bullfinch (Pyrrhula murina) and the short-tailed bat (Mystaina tuberculata) also eat fern spores.

Fern structure

Ferns at the Royal Melbourne Botanical Gardens

Tree ferns, probably Dicksonia antarctica, growing in Nunniong, Australia

Like the sporophytes of seed plants, those of ferns consist of:

  • Stems: Most often an underground creeping rhizome, but sometimes an above-ground creeping stolon (e.g., Polypodiaceae), or an above-ground erect semi-woody trunk (e.g., Cyatheaceae) reaching up to 20 m in a few species (e.g., Cyathea brownii on Norfolk Island and Cyathea medullaris in New Zealand).
  • Leaf: The green, photosynthetic part of the plant. In ferns, it is often referred to as a frond, but this is because of the historical division between people who study ferns and people who study seed plants, rather than because of differences in structure. New leaves typically expand by the unrolling of a tight spiral called a crozier or fiddlehead. This uncurling of the leaf is termed circinate vernation. Leaves are divided into three types:
    • Trophophyll: A leaf that does not produce spores, instead only producing sugars by photosynthesis. Analogous to the typical green leaves of seed plants.
    • Sporophyll: A leaf that produces spores. These leaves are analogous to the scales of pine cones or to stamens and pistil in gymnosperms and angiosperms, respectively. Unlike the seed plants, however, the sporophylls of ferns are typically not very specialized, looking similar to trophophylls and producing sugars by photosynthesis as the trophophylls do.
    • Brophophyll: A leaf that produces abnormally large amounts of spores. Their leaves are also larger than the other leaves but bear a resemblance to trophophylls.
  • Roots: The underground non-photosynthetic structures that take up water and nutrients from soil. They are always fibrous and are structurally very similar to the roots of seed plants.

The gametophytes of ferns, however, are very different from those of seed plants. They typically consist of:

  • Prothallus: A green, photosynthetic structure that is one cell thick, usually heart or kidney shaped, 3–10 mm long and 2–8 mm broad. The prothallus produces gametes by means of:
    • Antheridia: Small spherical structures that produce flagellate sperm.
    • Archegonia: A flask-shaped structure that produces a single egg at the bottom, reached by the sperm by swimming down the neck.
  • Rhizoids: root-like structures (not true roots) that consist of single greatly elongated cells, water and mineral salts are absorbed over the whole structure. Rhizoids anchor the prothallus to the soil.

One difference between sporophytes and gametophytes might be summed up by the saying that “Nothing eats ferns, but everything eats gametophytes.” This is an over-simplification, but it is true that gametophytes are often difficult to find in the field because they are far more likely to be food than are the sporophytes.

Evolution and classification

Ferns first appear in the fossil record in the early-Carboniferous period. By the Triassic, the first evidence of ferns related to several modern families appeared. The “great fern radiation” occurred in the late-Cretaceous, when many modern families of ferns first appeared.

One problem with fern classification is the problem of cryptic species. A cryptic species is a species that is morphologically similar to another species, but differs genetically in ways that prevent fertile interbreeding. A good example of this is the currently designated species Asplenium trichomanes, the maidenhair spleenwort. This is actually a species complex that includes distinct diploid and tetraploid races. There are minor but unclear morphological differences between the two groups, which prefer distinctly differing habitats. In many cases such as this, the species complexes have been separated into separate species, thus raising the number of overall fern species. Possibly many more cryptic species are yet to be discovered and designated.

Ferns have traditionally been grouped in the Class Filices, but modern classifications assign them their own phylum or division in the plant kingdom, called Pteridophyta, also known as Filicophyta. The group is also referred to as Polypodiophyta, (or Polypodiopsida when treated as a subdivision of tracheophyta (vascular plants), although Polypodiopsida sometimes refers to only the leptosporangiate ferns). The term “pteridophyte” has traditionally been used to describe all seedless vascular plants, making it synonymous with “ferns and fern allies”. This can be confusing since members of the fern phylum Pteridophyta are also sometimes referred to as pteridophytes. The study of ferns and other pteridophytes is called pteridology, and one who studies ferns and other pteridophytes is called a pteridologist.

Traditionally, three discrete groups of plants have been considered ferns: two groups of eusporangiate ferns—families Ophioglossaceae (adders-tongues, moonworts, and grape-ferns) and Marattiaceae—and the leptosporangiate ferns. The Marattiaceae are a primitive group of tropical ferns with a large, fleshy rhizome, and are now thought to be a sibling taxon to the main group of ferns, the leptosporangiate ferns. Several other groups of plants were considered “fern allies”: the clubmosses, spikemosses, and quillworts in the Lycopodiophyta, the whisk ferns in Psilotaceae, and the horsetails in the Equisetaceae. More recent genetic studies have shown that the Lycopodiophyta are more distantly related to other vascular plants, having radiated evolutionarily at the base of the vascular plant clade, while both the whisk ferns and horsetails are as much “true” ferns as are the Ophioglossoids and Marattiaceae. In fact, the whisk ferns and Ophioglossoids are demonstrably a clade, and the horsetails and Marattiaceae are arguably another clade. Molecular data—which remain poorly constrained for many parts of the plants’ phylogeny — have been supplemented by recent morphological observations supporting the inclusion of Equisetaceae within the ferns, notably relating to the construction of their sperm, and peculiarities of their roots (Smith et al. 2006, and references therein). However, there are still differences of opinion about the placement of the Equisetum species (see Equisetopsida for further discussion).

One possible means of treating this situation is to consider only the leptosporangiate ferns as “true” ferns, while considering the other three groups as “fern allies”. In practice, numerous classification schemes have been proposed for ferns and fern allies, and there has been little consensus among them. A new classification by Smith et al. (2006) is based on recent molecular systematic studies, in addition to morphological data. This classification divides extant ferns into four classes:

  • Psilotopsida (whisk ferns and ophioglossoid ferns), about 92 species
  • Equisetopsida (horsetails), about 15 species
  • Marattiopsida, about 150 species
  • Polypodiopsida (leptosporangiate ferns), about 9000 species

The last group includes most plants familiarly known as ferns. Modern research supports older ideas based on morphology that the Osmundaceae diverged early in the evolutionary history of the leptosporangiate ferns; in certain ways this family is intermediate between the eusporangiate ferns and the leptosporangiate ferns.

Cultural connotations

Blätter des Manns Walfarn. by Alois Auer, Vienna: Imperial Printing Office, 1853

Ferns figure in folklore, for example in legends about mythical flowers or seeds.[8] In Slavic folklore, ferns are believed to bloom once a year, during the Ivan Kupala night. Although alleged to be exceedingly difficult to find, anyone who sees a “fern flower” is thought to be guaranteed to be happy and rich for the rest of their life. Similarly, Finnish tradition holds that one who finds the “seed” of a fern in bloom on Midsummer night will, by possession of it, be guided and be able to travel invisibly to the locations where eternally blazing Will o’ the wisps called aarnivalkea mark the spot of hidden treasure. These spots are protected by a spell that prevents anyone but the fern-seed holder from ever knowing their locations.

“Pteridomania”‘ is a term for the Victorian era craze of fern collecting and fern motifs in decorative art including pottery, glass, metals, textiles, wood, printed paper, and sculpture “appearing on everything from christening presents to gravestones and memorials.” The fashion for growing ferns indoors led to the development of the Wardian case, a glazed cabinet that would exclude air pollutants and maintain the necessary humidity.

Barnsley fern created using chaos game, through an Iterated function system (IFS).

The dried form of ferns was also used in other arts, being used as a stencil or directly inked for use in a design. The botanical work, The Ferns of Great Britain and Ireland, is a notable example of this type of nature printing. The process, patented by the artist and publisher Henry Bradbury, impressed a specimen on to a soft lead plate. The first publication to demonstrate this was Alois Auer’s The Discovery of the Nature Printing-Process.

Medicinal Value

Ferns are sometimes used in medicine to treat cuts and clean them out. Ferns are also good bandages if you are stuck out in the wild. Rubbing a sword fern frond spore-side-down on a stinging nettle sting removes the stinging.

Misunderstood names

Several non-fern plants are called “ferns” and are sometimes confused with true ferns. These include:

  • “Asparagus fern”—This may apply to one of several species of the monocot genus Asparagus, which are flowering plants.
  • “Sweetfern”—A flowering shrub of the genus Comptonia.
  • “Air fern”—A group of animals called hydrozoan that are distantly related to jellyfish and corals. They are harvested, dried, dyed green, and then sold as a “plant” that can “live on air”. While it may look like a fern, it is merely the skeleton of this colonial animal.
  • “Fern bush”—Chamaebatiaria millefolium—a rose family shrub with fern-like leaves.

In addition, the book Where the Red Fern Grows has elicited many questions about the mythical “red fern” named in the book. There is no such known plant, although there has been speculation that the oblique grape-fern, Sceptridium dissectum, could be referred to here, because it is known to appear on disturbed sites and its fronds may redden over the winter.

Male Fern Rhizome,Common Carpesium Fruits,Common Carpesium Fruit seed,Common Carpesium Fruit varieties,grow Common Carpesium Fruit,Common Carpesium Fruit,Common Carpesium Fruit growing,seedless Common Carpesium Fruit,Common Carpesium Fruit nutrition,Common Carpesium Fruit plants,Common Carpesium Fruit plant,Common Carpesium Fruit planting,Common Carpesium Fruit vegetable,Common Carpesium Fruit juice,sugar baby Common Carpesium Fruit,Common Carpesium Fruit nutrition facts,growing Common Carpesium Fruits,best Common Carpesium Fruit,small Common Carpesium Fruit,black Common Carpesium Fruit,Common Carpesium Fruit jubilee,gardening Common Carpesium Fruit,Common Carpesium Fruit recipes,ripe Common Carpesium Fruit,moon and stars Common Carpesium Fruit,crimson sweet Common Carpesium Fruit,Common Carpesium Fruit facts,strawberry Common Carpesium Fruit,organic Common Carpesium Fruit,seedless Common Carpesium Fruits,Common Carpesium Fruit nutritional information,Common Carpesium Fruit fruit,Common Carpesium Fruit tomato,grow Common Carpesium Fruits,Male Fern Rhizome for sale,fresh Common Carpesium Fruit,how to grow Common Carpesium Fruits,eating Common Carpesium Fruit,seedless Male Fern Rhizome,Common Carpesium Fruit growers,Common Carpesium Fruit production,Common Carpesium Fruit calories,Common Carpesium Fruit calorie,buy Common Carpesium Fruit,Common Carpesium Fruit cross,Common Carpesium Fruit types,yellow Common Carpesium Fruit,Common Carpesium Fruit rind,planting Common Carpesium Fruits,Common Carpesium Fruit seed tea,Common Carpesium Fruit health,Common Carpesium Fruit cocktail,Common Carpesium Fruit drink,Common Carpesium Fruit harvest,Common Carpesium Fruit benefits,Common Carpesium Fruit theme,Common Carpesium Fruit smoothies

Coconut

kelapa-berbuah1-chepa

Coconut

Get the Flash Player to see the wordTube Media Player.

The Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera) is a member of the Family Arecaceae (palm family). It is the only species in the genus Cocos, and is a large palm, growing to 30 m tall, with pinnate leaves 4–6 m long, pinnae 60–90 cm long; old leaves break away cleanly leaving the trunk smooth. The term coconut refers to the seed of the coconut palm. The spelling cocoanut is an old-fashioned form of the word.[1]

The coconut palm is grown throughout the tropical world, for decoration as well as for its many culinary and non-culinary uses; virtually every part of the coconut palm has some human uses. In cooler climates (but not less than USDA Zone 9), a similar palm, the Queen palm (Syagrus romanzoffiana) is used in urban landscaping. Its fruit are very similar to the coconut albeit much smaller. It was originally classified in Cocos genus along with the coconut, but was later moved to Syagrus. A recently discovered palm, Beccariophoenix alfredii from Madagascar is nearly identical to the Coconut, even more than the Queen palm. It is quite cold-hardy and makes the perfect Coconut-lookalike for many cooler areas all over the world.

The coconut has spread across much of the tropics, probably aided in many cases by seafaring people. Coconut fruit in the wild is light, buoyant and highly water resistant and evolved to disperse significant distances via marine currents.[2] Such fruits collected from the sea as far north as Norway have been found to be viable, subsequently germinating under the right conditions. In the Hawaiian Islands, the coconut is regarded as a Polynesian introduction, first brought to the islands by early Polynesian voyagers from their homelands in the South Pacific. They are now almost ubiquitous between 26°N and 26°S except for the interiors of Africa and South America.

The flowers of the coconut palm are polygamomonoecious, with both male and female flowers in the same inflorescence. Flowering occurs continuously, with female flowers producing seeds. Coconut palms are believed to be largely cross-pollinated, although some dwarf varieties are self-pollinating. The “nut” of the coconut is the edible endosperm, located on the inner surface of the shell. Inside the endosperm layer, coconuts contain an edible clear liquid that is sweet or salty or both sweet and salty.

Coconuts received the name from Portuguese explorers, the sailors of Vasco da Gama in India, who first brought them to Europe. The brown and hairy surface of coconuts reminded them of a ghost (or witch) called coco (known in castillian as El coco).[3] When coconuts arrived in England, they retained the coco name and the suffix -nut was added.

Distribution

Origins

The origins of this plant are the subject of controversy, with most authorities claiming it is native to South Asia (particularly the Ganges Delta), while others claim its origin is in northwestern South America. Fossil records from New Zealand indicate that small, coconut-like plants grew there as long as 15 million years ago. Even older fossils have been uncovered in Kerala (Kerala means “land of coconut palms”), Rajasthan, Thennai in Tamil Nadu at banks of River Palar, Then-pennai, Thamirabharani, Cauvery and Mountain sides at Kerala borders,[Konaseema-Andharapradesh], Maharashtra (India) and the oldest known so far in Khulna, Bangladesh.

Mention is made of coconuts in the 2nd–1st centuries BC in the Mahawamsa of Sri Lanka. The later Culawamasa states that King Aggabodhi I (575–608) planted a coconut garden of 3 yojanas length, possibly the earliest recorded coconut plantation. It is also common in Trinidad and Tobago.

Natural habitat

The coconut palm thrives on sandy soils and is highly tolerant of salinity. It prefers areas with abundant sunlight and regular rainfall (150 cm to 250 cm annually), which makes colonizing shorelines of the tropics relatively straightforward.[4] Coconuts also need high humidity (70–80%+) for optimum growth, which is why they are rarely seen in areas with low humidity, like the Mediterranean, even where temperatures are high enough (regularly above 24°C).

Coconut palms require warm conditions for successful growth, and are intolerant of cold weather. Optimum growth is with a mean annual temperature of 27°C (80.6°F), and growth is reduced below 21°C (69.8°F). Some seasonal variation is tolerated, with good growth where mean summer temperatures are between 28–37°C (82.4–98.6°F), and survival as long as winter temperatures are above 4–12°C (39.2–53.6°F); they will survive brief drops to 0°C (32°F). Severe frost is usually fatal, although they have been known to recover from temperatures of -4°C (24.8°F).[4] They may grow but not fruit properly in areas where there is not sufficient warmth, like Bermuda.

The conditions required for coconut trees to grow without any care are:

  • mean daily temperature above 12-13C every day of the year
  • 50 year low temperature above freezing
  • mean yearly rainfall above 1000 mm
  • no or very little overhead canopy since even small trees require a lot of sun

The main limiting factor is that most locations which satisfy the first three requirements do not satisfy the fourth, except near the coast where the sandy soil and salt spray limit the growth of most other trees (Palmtalk[5]).

The range of the natural habitat of the coconut palm tree is delineated by the red line in map C1 to the right (based on information in Werth 1933, slightly modified by Niklas Jonsson).

Cultivation

Coconut trees are very hard to establish in dry climates and cannot grow there without frequent irrigation; in drought conditions, the new leaves do not open well, and older leaves may become desiccated; fruit also tends to be shed.[4]

Plant densities in Vanuatu for copra production are generally 9 meter, allowing a tree density of 100–160 trees per hectare.

Pests and diseases

Coconuts are susceptible to the phytoplasma disease lethal yellowing. One recently selected cultivar, ‘Maypan’, has been bred for resistance to this disease. The fruit may also be damaged by eriophyid coconut mites. The coconut is also used as a food plant by the larvae of many Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) species, including Batrachedra spp: B. arenosella, B. atriloqua (feeds exclusively on Cocos nucifera), B. mathesoni (feeds exclusively on Cocos nucifera), and B. nuciferae.

Brontispa longissima (the “Coconut leaf beetle”) feeds on young leaves and damages seedlings and mature coconut palms. On September 27, 2007, Philippines’ Metro Manila and 26 provinces were quarantined due to having been infested with this pest (to save the $800-million Philippine coconut industry).[7] In Kerala the major pests of Coconut are the Eriophyid mite, the Rhinoceros Beetle, the Red Palm Weevil and the Coconut Leaf caterpillar. The Eriophyid coconut mite (Eriophyes guerreronis) is devastating and can cause damages up to 90% in coconut production. The immature nuts are infested and desapped by staying in the portion covered by the Perianth of the immature nut. Subsequently the nuts drop off or survive deformed. Spraying with Wettable Sulfur 0.4% alternately with neem based pesticides can give some relief, but is cumbersome and labor intensive. Research on this topic gave no results and the researchers from the Kerala Agricultural University and the Central Plantation Crop Research Institute, Kasaragode are still searching for a cure. The /Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kannur under Kerala Agricultural University has developed an innovative extension approach called Compact area group approach (CAGA) to combat coconut mites.

Growing in the United States

The only states in the U.S. where coconut palms can be grown and reproduced outdoors without irrigation are Hawaii and south Florida. Coconut palms will grow from St. Petersburg southwards on Florida’s west coast, and Melbourne southwards on Florida’s east coast. The occasional coconut palm is seen north of these areas in favoured microclimates in the Tampa and Clearwater metro area and around Cape Canaveral, as well as the Orlando-Kissimmee-Daytona Beach metro area. They may likewise be grown in favored microclimates in the Rio Grande Valley area of Deep South Texas near Brownsville and on Galveston Island. They may reach fruiting maturity, but are damaged or killed by the occasional winter freezes in these areas. While coconut palms flourish in south Florida, unusually bitter cold snaps can kill or injure coconut palms there as well. Only the Florida Keys and the coastlines provide safe havens from the cold for growing coconut palms on the U.S. mainland.

The farthest north in the United States a coconut palm has been known to grow outdoors is in Newport Beach, California along the Pacific Coast Highway. For coconut palms to survive in Southern California, they need sandy soil and minimal water in the winter to prevent root rot, and would benefit from root heating coils.

Coconut production in the Middle East

The main coconut producing area in the Middle East is the Dhofar region of Oman. In particular, the area around Salalah maintains large coconut plantations similar to those found across the Arabian Sea. The large coconut groves of Dhofar were mentioned by the medieval Moroccan traveller Ibn Battuta in his writings, known as Al Rihla.[8] This is possible due to an annual rainy season known locally as Khareef. Coconuts also are increasingly grown for decorative purposes along the coasts of UAE and Saudi Arabia with the help of irrigation. The UAE has, however, imposed strict laws on mature coconut tree imports from other countries to reduce the spread of pests to other native palm trees such as the date palm.[9]

Production

The Philippines is the world leader in coconut production (2007), followed by Indonesia, and India in distant third. Pollachi and its surrounding villages are the largest coconut growing hubs in India, and is famous for the most tender coconuts in India. And, they are also famous for the coconut-based products like tender coconut water, copra, coconut oil, coconut cake, coconut toddy, coconut shell-based products, coconut wood-based products, coconut leaves, and coir pith.

Coconut, coconut type, also known as coconut, coconut origin, coconut trees, coconut plant morphology, acquisition of coconut, coconut characteristics of the chemical composition of coconut trees, taste coconut, coconut, functions of signs of coconut, coconut clear, coconut information, photos, coconut , coconut pictures, videos coconut, coconut photo studio, wood vinegar bacteria, is a coconut planting, flower angle, herbs, from the fence, taro, taro mice, turmeric, spoiled Kani, Malaysia Airlines Cotek, jasmine, Coconut nata, but the distance, side dishes King