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Bilberry

bilberry

Bilberry

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Introduction

This fact sheet provides basic information about bilberry—common names, uses, potential side effects, and resources for more information. Bilberry is a relative of the blueberry, and its fruit is commonly used to make pies and jams. It has been used for nearly 1,000 years in traditional European medicine. Bilberry grows in North America, Europe, and northern Asia.

Common Names—bilberry, European blueberry, whortleberry, huckleberry

Latin NamesVaccinium myrtillus

What It Is Used For

  • Historically, bilberry fruit was used to treat diarrhea, scurvy, and other conditions.
  • Today, the fruit is used to treat diarrhea, menstrual cramps, eye problems, varicose veins, venous insufficiency (a condition in which the veins do not efficiently return blood from the legs to the heart), and other circulatory problems.
  • Bilberry leaf is used for entirely different conditions, including diabetes.

How It Is Used

The fruit of the bilberry plant can be eaten or made into extracts. Similarly, the leaves of the bilberry plant can be made into extracts or used to make teas.

What the Science Says

  • Some claim that bilberry fruit improves night vision, but clinical studies have not shown this to be true.
  • There is not enough scientific evidence to support the use of bilberry fruit or leaf for any health conditions.

Side Effects and Cautions

  • Bilberry fruit is considered safe. However, high doses of bilberry leaf or leaf extract are considered unsafe due to possible toxic side effects.
  • Tell your health care providers about any complementary and alternative practices you use. Give them a full picture of what you do to manage your health. This will help ensure coordinated and safe care.

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Asian Ginseng

aginseng

Asian Ginseng

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Introduction

This fact sheet provides basic information about the herb Asian ginseng—common names, uses, potential side effects, and resources for more information. Asian ginseng is native to China and Korea and has been used in various systems of medicine for many centuries. Asian ginseng is one of several types of true ginseng (another is American ginseng, Panax quinquefolius). An herb called Siberian ginseng or eleuthero (Eleutherococcus senticosus) is not a true ginseng.

Common Names—Asian ginseng, ginseng, Chinese ginseng, Korean ginseng, Asiatic ginseng

Latin NamePanax ginseng

What It Is Used For

Treatment claims for Asian ginseng are numerous and include the use of the herb to support overall health and boost the immune system. Traditional and modern uses of ginseng include:

  • Improving the health of people recovering from illness
  • Increasing a sense of well-being and stamina, and improving both mental and physical performance
  • Treating erectile dysfunction, hepatitis C, and symptoms related to menopause
  • Lowering blood glucose and controlling blood pressure

How It Is Used

The root of Asian ginseng contains active chemical components called ginsenosides (or panaxosides) that are thought to be responsible for the herb’s medicinal properties. The root is dried and used to make tablets or capsules, extracts, and teas, as well as creams or other preparations for external use.

What the Science Says

  • Some studies have shown that Asian ginseng may lower blood glucose. Other studies indicate possible beneficial effects on immune function.
  • To date, research results on Asian ginseng are not conclusive enough to prove health claims associated with the herb. Only a handful of large clinical trials on Asian ginseng have been conducted. Most studies have been small or have had flaws in design and reporting. Some claims for health benefits have been based only on studies conducted in animals.
  • NCCAM supports studies to better understand the use of Asian ginseng. Areas of recent NCCAM-funded research include Asian ginseng’s interactions with other herbs and drugs and the herb’s potential to treat chronic lung infection, impaired glucose tolerance, and Alzheimer’s disease.

Side Effects and Cautions

  • When taken by mouth, ginseng is usually well tolerated. Some sources suggest that its use be limited to 3 months because of concerns about the development of side effects.
  • The most common side effects are headaches and sleep and gastrointestinal problems.
  • Asian ginseng can cause allergic reactions.
  • There have been reports of breast tenderness, menstrual irregularities, and high blood pressure associated with Asian ginseng products, but these products’ components were not analyzed, so effects may have been due to another herb or drug in the product.
  • Asian ginseng may lower levels of blood sugar; this effect may be seen more in people with diabetes. Therefore, people with diabetes should use extra caution with Asian ginseng, especially if they are using medicines to lower blood sugar or taking other herbs, such as bitter melon and fenugreek, that are also thought to lower blood sugar.
  • Tell your health care providers about any complementary and alternative practices you use. Give them a full picture of what you do to manage your health. This will help ensure coordinated and safe care.

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Let’s recognize culinary herbs and usability

Let’s recognize culinary herbs and usability

The uniqueness of taste and smell make it often used in cooking various nations. He also has various properties in perubatan and beauty, and used as a durable material also semulajadi and kraftangan materials.

That is the privilege of spices and herbs hundred. In fact, our country (especially Malacca) has become the center of the spice trade in this foreign country when the first one.

Where a single herbs, spices which one?

Herbs usually come than the leaves, when the herb-hundred came than grains, fruits, bark or roots. Sometimes the herbs and spices can also come than the same subject. Example coriander. Fresh coriander leaves are herbs used in cooking tomyam, coriander powder than when the seeds are the main ingredient in curry spices.

Fresh or dried? : While he kept the right, both herbaceous and fresh or dried herbs contain a variety of properties including phytochemicals.

Keeping qualities : It is important to save hundred herbs and spices in the right way to perpetuate properties and taste. Dried herbs may be wrapped in paper towel and add to the former or plastic Beg before inserted into the chest ais. You also get to keep the spice in the former closed airtight cooler outside the box, but make sure the place is dark and dim. He may hold that six months. Do not put it on the edge of the kitchen will influence the heat kerana qualities and taste.

If you want to buy spices powder, do not buy in a quantity that many will quickly kerana berkurangan freshness. For example, black pepper powder, bought in a small quantity and the proportion buying black pepper if you want to dikisar not save them in a long time.

What made it so valuable?
Studies have found that herbs and spices contain many hundreds of anti-oxidants, which help the human body against free radicals that can cause illness. He also contain phytochemicals such as curcumin (the turmeric), capsaicin (chilli), allicin (garlic) and gingerol (ginger), and also various vitamins, including vitamin C.

Curry spices are said to be able to make your minda youth. He is also good to prevent this kanser and also perhaps one of the contributors to the lack of valid kanser disease among the Indian community in India.

He also helped to add other food functions if added to the dish in a phenomenon called ‘synergy of food’. “For this, more serviceable to enjoy the real benefits of cooking rather than taking supplements or food supplements.

Aside from the food, spices and herbs were also used in beauty treatments and Kesihatan. Between commonly used is lemon grass, pandan, and Black Seed manjakani used in treatments such as bathing herbs for example. He is not sahaja body perfume, instead saying the toxic able to remove the body.

The nature of anti-mikrobnya according semulajadi and preservatives used widely used cool boxes dikala absence in ancient times. Hundred and spices like turmeric herbs, ginger, cinnamon, are also widely used in traditional perubatan various nations. Involving Pengubatan spirits joined using herbs and spices like black pepper and garlic that is read with particular readings.

In Food : Between function-hundred and spices in cooking herbs are added perisa and kelazatan without adding more calories, fat, sugar, sodium or salt in cooking. The aroma is not of our making sahaja enjoy keenakannya impatient, in fact he also remove the unpleasant smell like the smell of cooking meat Hamis, and also hanyir fish. Spice hundred and herbs in cooking dishes are also made more visible menyelerakan with color and shape of various.

To perpetuate herbaceous flavor and color, put it at the end of cooking. But if you want to taste the ‘entry’ into the cooking, cooking tambahkannya early. You also may mangle herbs or tapped for a stronger taste.
Most spices like curry or soup spices, savory pan-fried so crisp before adding water or coconut milk does not seem so rempahnya ‘raw’.

10 Ways to Enjoy the Herb and Spice in Food
1. You may make one of the curry spice ingredients perapan chicken or fish stir-fried or baked saffron substitute.
2. Dessert like flan or bread pudding may diperisakan with cinnamon bark powder or nutmeg powder.
3. Add fresh herbs such as kesum leaf, lemongrass and chili hirisan into your kerabu or salad.
4. Add herbs such as pudina leaves into your tea is still warm or your favorite fruit juice.
5. Boiled hirisan or lemongrass or ginger pieces with water. Sejukkan and add a little sweetener like honey or sugar. He is refreshing.
6. Brush butter mixed with crushed garlic and chopped herbs to parsli and grilled bread for garlic bread lazat.
7. Saute spices with chilli four companions who used to spicy dishes spicy sour.
8. Mayang subtle lime leaves and lemon over fish hiaskannya cook your favorite chili.
9. Add oregano herbs into your pasta sauce.
10. Enter nutmeg or cloves with epal stew and eat with plates of milk or make it the core of a burned pastry.

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Coconut

kelapa-berbuah1-chepa

Coconut

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The Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera) is a member of the Family Arecaceae (palm family). It is the only species in the genus Cocos, and is a large palm, growing to 30 m tall, with pinnate leaves 4–6 m long, pinnae 60–90 cm long; old leaves break away cleanly leaving the trunk smooth. The term coconut refers to the seed of the coconut palm. The spelling cocoanut is an old-fashioned form of the word.[1]

The coconut palm is grown throughout the tropical world, for decoration as well as for its many culinary and non-culinary uses; virtually every part of the coconut palm has some human uses. In cooler climates (but not less than USDA Zone 9), a similar palm, the Queen palm (Syagrus romanzoffiana) is used in urban landscaping. Its fruit are very similar to the coconut albeit much smaller. It was originally classified in Cocos genus along with the coconut, but was later moved to Syagrus. A recently discovered palm, Beccariophoenix alfredii from Madagascar is nearly identical to the Coconut, even more than the Queen palm. It is quite cold-hardy and makes the perfect Coconut-lookalike for many cooler areas all over the world.

The coconut has spread across much of the tropics, probably aided in many cases by seafaring people. Coconut fruit in the wild is light, buoyant and highly water resistant and evolved to disperse significant distances via marine currents.[2] Such fruits collected from the sea as far north as Norway have been found to be viable, subsequently germinating under the right conditions. In the Hawaiian Islands, the coconut is regarded as a Polynesian introduction, first brought to the islands by early Polynesian voyagers from their homelands in the South Pacific. They are now almost ubiquitous between 26°N and 26°S except for the interiors of Africa and South America.

The flowers of the coconut palm are polygamomonoecious, with both male and female flowers in the same inflorescence. Flowering occurs continuously, with female flowers producing seeds. Coconut palms are believed to be largely cross-pollinated, although some dwarf varieties are self-pollinating. The “nut” of the coconut is the edible endosperm, located on the inner surface of the shell. Inside the endosperm layer, coconuts contain an edible clear liquid that is sweet or salty or both sweet and salty.

Coconuts received the name from Portuguese explorers, the sailors of Vasco da Gama in India, who first brought them to Europe. The brown and hairy surface of coconuts reminded them of a ghost (or witch) called coco (known in castillian as El coco).[3] When coconuts arrived in England, they retained the coco name and the suffix -nut was added.

Distribution

Origins

The origins of this plant are the subject of controversy, with most authorities claiming it is native to South Asia (particularly the Ganges Delta), while others claim its origin is in northwestern South America. Fossil records from New Zealand indicate that small, coconut-like plants grew there as long as 15 million years ago. Even older fossils have been uncovered in Kerala (Kerala means “land of coconut palms”), Rajasthan, Thennai in Tamil Nadu at banks of River Palar, Then-pennai, Thamirabharani, Cauvery and Mountain sides at Kerala borders,[Konaseema-Andharapradesh], Maharashtra (India) and the oldest known so far in Khulna, Bangladesh.

Mention is made of coconuts in the 2nd–1st centuries BC in the Mahawamsa of Sri Lanka. The later Culawamasa states that King Aggabodhi I (575–608) planted a coconut garden of 3 yojanas length, possibly the earliest recorded coconut plantation. It is also common in Trinidad and Tobago.

Natural habitat

The coconut palm thrives on sandy soils and is highly tolerant of salinity. It prefers areas with abundant sunlight and regular rainfall (150 cm to 250 cm annually), which makes colonizing shorelines of the tropics relatively straightforward.[4] Coconuts also need high humidity (70–80%+) for optimum growth, which is why they are rarely seen in areas with low humidity, like the Mediterranean, even where temperatures are high enough (regularly above 24°C).

Coconut palms require warm conditions for successful growth, and are intolerant of cold weather. Optimum growth is with a mean annual temperature of 27°C (80.6°F), and growth is reduced below 21°C (69.8°F). Some seasonal variation is tolerated, with good growth where mean summer temperatures are between 28–37°C (82.4–98.6°F), and survival as long as winter temperatures are above 4–12°C (39.2–53.6°F); they will survive brief drops to 0°C (32°F). Severe frost is usually fatal, although they have been known to recover from temperatures of -4°C (24.8°F).[4] They may grow but not fruit properly in areas where there is not sufficient warmth, like Bermuda.

The conditions required for coconut trees to grow without any care are:

  • mean daily temperature above 12-13C every day of the year
  • 50 year low temperature above freezing
  • mean yearly rainfall above 1000 mm
  • no or very little overhead canopy since even small trees require a lot of sun

The main limiting factor is that most locations which satisfy the first three requirements do not satisfy the fourth, except near the coast where the sandy soil and salt spray limit the growth of most other trees (Palmtalk[5]).

The range of the natural habitat of the coconut palm tree is delineated by the red line in map C1 to the right (based on information in Werth 1933, slightly modified by Niklas Jonsson).

Cultivation

Coconut trees are very hard to establish in dry climates and cannot grow there without frequent irrigation; in drought conditions, the new leaves do not open well, and older leaves may become desiccated; fruit also tends to be shed.[4]

Plant densities in Vanuatu for copra production are generally 9 meter, allowing a tree density of 100–160 trees per hectare.

Pests and diseases

Coconuts are susceptible to the phytoplasma disease lethal yellowing. One recently selected cultivar, ‘Maypan’, has been bred for resistance to this disease. The fruit may also be damaged by eriophyid coconut mites. The coconut is also used as a food plant by the larvae of many Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) species, including Batrachedra spp: B. arenosella, B. atriloqua (feeds exclusively on Cocos nucifera), B. mathesoni (feeds exclusively on Cocos nucifera), and B. nuciferae.

Brontispa longissima (the “Coconut leaf beetle”) feeds on young leaves and damages seedlings and mature coconut palms. On September 27, 2007, Philippines’ Metro Manila and 26 provinces were quarantined due to having been infested with this pest (to save the $800-million Philippine coconut industry).[7] In Kerala the major pests of Coconut are the Eriophyid mite, the Rhinoceros Beetle, the Red Palm Weevil and the Coconut Leaf caterpillar. The Eriophyid coconut mite (Eriophyes guerreronis) is devastating and can cause damages up to 90% in coconut production. The immature nuts are infested and desapped by staying in the portion covered by the Perianth of the immature nut. Subsequently the nuts drop off or survive deformed. Spraying with Wettable Sulfur 0.4% alternately with neem based pesticides can give some relief, but is cumbersome and labor intensive. Research on this topic gave no results and the researchers from the Kerala Agricultural University and the Central Plantation Crop Research Institute, Kasaragode are still searching for a cure. The /Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kannur under Kerala Agricultural University has developed an innovative extension approach called Compact area group approach (CAGA) to combat coconut mites.

Growing in the United States

The only states in the U.S. where coconut palms can be grown and reproduced outdoors without irrigation are Hawaii and south Florida. Coconut palms will grow from St. Petersburg southwards on Florida’s west coast, and Melbourne southwards on Florida’s east coast. The occasional coconut palm is seen north of these areas in favoured microclimates in the Tampa and Clearwater metro area and around Cape Canaveral, as well as the Orlando-Kissimmee-Daytona Beach metro area. They may likewise be grown in favored microclimates in the Rio Grande Valley area of Deep South Texas near Brownsville and on Galveston Island. They may reach fruiting maturity, but are damaged or killed by the occasional winter freezes in these areas. While coconut palms flourish in south Florida, unusually bitter cold snaps can kill or injure coconut palms there as well. Only the Florida Keys and the coastlines provide safe havens from the cold for growing coconut palms on the U.S. mainland.

The farthest north in the United States a coconut palm has been known to grow outdoors is in Newport Beach, California along the Pacific Coast Highway. For coconut palms to survive in Southern California, they need sandy soil and minimal water in the winter to prevent root rot, and would benefit from root heating coils.

Coconut production in the Middle East

The main coconut producing area in the Middle East is the Dhofar region of Oman. In particular, the area around Salalah maintains large coconut plantations similar to those found across the Arabian Sea. The large coconut groves of Dhofar were mentioned by the medieval Moroccan traveller Ibn Battuta in his writings, known as Al Rihla.[8] This is possible due to an annual rainy season known locally as Khareef. Coconuts also are increasingly grown for decorative purposes along the coasts of UAE and Saudi Arabia with the help of irrigation. The UAE has, however, imposed strict laws on mature coconut tree imports from other countries to reduce the spread of pests to other native palm trees such as the date palm.[9]

Production

The Philippines is the world leader in coconut production (2007), followed by Indonesia, and India in distant third. Pollachi and its surrounding villages are the largest coconut growing hubs in India, and is famous for the most tender coconuts in India. And, they are also famous for the coconut-based products like tender coconut water, copra, coconut oil, coconut cake, coconut toddy, coconut shell-based products, coconut wood-based products, coconut leaves, and coir pith.

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